Traditionally, the Macro-Ge speaking Botocudo were organized into nomadic hunting and gathering bands of 50–200 members led by shaman-chiefs. By the nineteenth century they had been driven inland by frontier wars and colonization from the coastal areas of Espirito Santo and southeastern Bahia to western Espirito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Botocudo believed in sky spirits that interceded in human affairs through the mediation of shamans. The remaining Botocudo practice agriculture.
- South America
- Eastern South America