The Chukchee live in the extreme northeastern reaches of Siberia, partly within the Arctic Circle. Traditionally the Chukchee were divided into two economic-cultural groups: nomadic reindeer herders of the tundra and the maritime sedentary hunters of sea animals. In the early 1950s reindeer and maritime Chukchee households were united into one political unit. The life-style and culture of the Chukchee changed as the region was developed into a major mining center. A national intelligentsia was born, which included writers, doctors, teachers, scientists, livestock specialists, and others.
- North Asia