The Republic of Kiribati consists of three equatorial Pacific island groups: the Gilbert (including Banaba), Phoenix, and Line islands. Most inhabitants live in the Gilbert (Kiribati) Islands, mainly on South Tarawa. Landholding residential groups composed of ambilineal descent groups are the traditional social unit, governed by councils of heads of descent groups (and, at times, led by chiefs); traditional island councils continue to supplement elected ones. Agriculture on most islands is limited to a few hardy root crops and trees due to porous soils and a dry climate. Fishing remains the mainstay of the economy, with most households relying increasingly on remittances from migrant workers and imported food.
- primarily hunter-gatherers