article

Garifuna children's language shame: ethnic stereotypes, national affiliation, and transnational immigration as factors in language choice

Language and society30 (1) • Published In 2001 • Pages: 81-96

By: Bonner, Donna.

Abstract
In this article, Bonner examines the reasons for the decline in use of the Garifuna language among children and young adults in a multilingual and multiethnic town of Dangriga, Belize. Garifuna language is a mix of Native American, West African, and European grammar and vocabulary. It is at the bottom of a language hierarchy, which includes English Creole (the 'native' language of Belize), English, and Spanish. The Spanish-speaking population of Belize and the town of Dangriga has increased with recent immigration from neighboring countries, especially Mexico. Although Garifuna are shy about using their own language in multiethnic settings, as it marks their marginal status in Belize society, recently their language has become embraced by the Creole as an authentic language of the African diaspora and associated with the country's unique non-Spanish history and culture. Nevertheless the more widely spoken English Creole has become the language of solidarity in face of this 'Spanish' intrusion.
Subjects
External migration
Speech
Linguistic identification
Ethnic stratification
culture
Garifuna
HRAF PubDate
2005
Region
Middle America and the Caribbean
Sub Region
Central America
Document Type
article
Evaluation
Ethnographer-5
Analyst
Ian Skoggard ; 2003
Coverage Date
1980-2000
Coverage Place
Dangriga, Belize
Notes
Donna M. Bonner
Includes bibliographical references (p. 94-96)
LCCN
72623747
LCSH
Garifuna (Caribbean people)