The Nivkh (also known as Gilyak) live in the Russian Far East along both banks of the lower Amur River and the northern parts of the Sakhalin Island. They speak an isolate language (also called Nivkh) with two main dialects, one spoken in Amur and the other in Sakhalin. The traditional subsistence of the Nivkh was based on fishing and marine hunting, supplemented by hunting for land mammals during the fall. By 1990, the Nivkh were well integrated into the Russian economy and culture. Yet many Nivkh families continued to observe traditional economic activities and cultural practices which they were eager to perpetuate.
- North Asia
- primarily hunter-gatherers