The Kanak of New Caledonia traditionally used intensive irrigation in raising the staple crops of yams, taro and bananas, a diet supplemented by fishing and raising pigs. The nuclear family was the principal unit of production and fundamental social unit, organized successively into extended families, patrilineages, and clans, a system elaborately mapped onto the settled and natural landscape as a set of genealogies, land rights, and territories. Lineage heads served as chiefs who maintained the social order and were the focal points of redistribution networks; the heads of ancestral lineages served as clan elders who weighed in on moral issues (including land and matrimonial disputes) and guided ceremonial life. Under French territorial administration, the Kanak lost control of much of their traditional lands, undercutting the role of chiefs, while mining offered male employment outside the communities. Social unrest following the collapse of a nickel boom in the 1970s spurred an independence movement and economic reforms.
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The Kanak collection includes major ethnographies in French and English by the French Protestant missionary and ethnologist Maurice Leenhardt (1930, 1979) who lived among the Kanak, principally among the Ajië, during much of the early half of the twentieth century. A comprehensive political and economic history is provided by Connell (1987). In two separate articles Bensa examines precolonial chiefly authority (Bensa 1997) and land rights and reform (Bensa 1992). Ward (1982) also examines the land question and independence movements in the period following the Second World War. More recent studies look at gender inequality (Paini 2003), gender violence (Salomon 2008), and a reconciliation ceremony regarding the assassination of Kanak independence leaders (Leblic 2007).
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Agrandissement – expansion of native reserves –use "PUBLIC WELFARE (657)"
Cantonnement – “confinement” on a reservation – use "PUBLIC WELFARE (657)"