Endicott, Kirk M.. Batek Negrito religion: the world-view and rituals of a hunting and gathering people of Peninsular Malaysia

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I Introduction

The People


Social Organization


A Typical Day In A Batek Forest Camp

The Nature Of Batek Religion

The Present Study


The Problem Of Variation In Beliefs

Approach Taken

2 Cosmos

The Earth

The Sky And Firmament

The Sun

The Moon

The Stars

Stone Pillars

The Afterworld

Orientation Of The Cosmos


3 Man And Environment

Batek Attitudes Toward The Forest

The Forest As A Source Of Food

Wild Tubers



Agricultural Products

Game And Fish

The Forest As A Source Of Danger

Prohibitions To Prevent Thunderstorms And Flash-floods

Prohibitions To Deter Tigers

Prohibitions To Prevent Diseases And Accidents


4 Human Beings

The Origin Of Human Beings

The Separation Of The Races

The Components Of Human Beings




Mendriq Semangat: A Comparison


Disease And Curing

Causes Of Disease

Curing Techniques


Death And Burial

Fate Of The Components Of Human Beings


Fear Of The Grave


5 Superhuman Beings

Hala' 'asal

Components Of Hala' 'asal

Activities Of The Hala' 'asal



The Relationship Of Humans To Hala'

Characteristics Of Shamans

Activities Of Shamans

Becoming A Shaman

Death Of Shamans

Shamans And Tigers

Communication With The Superhuman Beings

Methods Of Communication With Superhumans

Singing Sessions

Blood Sacrifice

6 Deities: Description

Deities Of The Batek Dè'


Earth Deity


Other Beings

Structure Of The Batek Dè' Pantheon

Celestial Deities Of Other Groups

Batek Nòng

Batek Teh And Mendriq

Western Negritos

Earth Deities Of Other Groups


Other Beings

7 Deities: Interpretation

Previous Researchers




The Nature Of Negrito Deities

Functions Of The Superhuman Beings

Roles And Images Of The Superhuman Beings

Consolidation And Differentiation

Batek Dè' Deities In Perspective

8 Conclusions

Batek Religion And The Batek World

Batek Religion And The Religion Of Ancient Man

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Batek Negrito religion: the world-view and rituals of a hunting and gathering people of Peninsular Malaysia

Published By: Original publisher Oxford ; New York: Clarendon Press ; Oxford University Press. 1979. xiv, 234 p., [3] leaves of plates ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Kirk Endicott

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Semang (AN07)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Location (131); Population (161); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Vocabulary (192); Linguistic identification (197); Collecting (222); Hunting and trapping (224); Diet (262); Settlement patterns (361); General character of religion (771); Cosmology (772); Mythology (773); Animism (774); Eschatology (775); Spirits and gods (776); Prayers and sacrifices (782); Magic (789); Ethnometeorology (821); Ethnobotany (824);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This monograph describes and analysizes the religious beliefs of the Semang, a group of nomadic hunting-gethering people who live in the forests of Malaysia. Basing himself on extensive ethnographic fieldwork among a small subgroup of Semang called Batek Negritos, the author shows that religion gives meaning and values to their lives and reassures them that the way they live is right for them and is in harmony with the forces of nature.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 4

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. an07-004

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 223-225) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1971-1972,1973,1975,1976

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Teferi Abate Adem ;2006

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1900-1979

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Malaysia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Batek (Malaysian people)--Religion/Semang (Malaysian people)


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