Turnbull, Colin M.. Wayward servants: the two worlds of the African Pygmies

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part One Introduction

Chapter 1 Objectives



Field Technique


Chapter 2 Orientation

The People And The Environment

Mbuti, B A Mbuti, Bambuti

Ethnographic Background

Part Two The Village World

Chapter 3 The Mbuti/villager Relationship

The Ouestion Of Dependence

Economic Reciprocity

The Need For Control

Chapter 4 The Notion Of Hereditary Ownership

Chapter 5 The Notion Of Supernatural Control

The Village Supernatural

Curative Magic


Village Sorcery

Chapter 6 Village Religion






The Village Molimo Mourning Ceremony

Chapter 7 Flux And Instability

Part Three The Forest World

Chapter 8 The Band



Fracmentation, Fission And Fusion

The Family

Age Groups

Chapter 9 The Life Cycle

Daily Life


Puberty: The Elima



Chapter 10 The Economy

The Band As An Economic Unit

Division Of Labor

Hunting Techniques



Economic Aspects Of Territory

Economic Relationships Between Hunting Bands

Economic Relationships Between Band And Village

Economic Authority

Chapter 11 Government: Internal

Internal Relationships

Disputes Concerning Food

Disputes Concerning Sex

Disputes Concerning Territory

Disputes Concerning Trivia

Disputes Concerning Theft

Disputes Concerning The Village

Chapter 12 Government: External

Band To Band



Interfamily Exchange

Band To Village


Lineage Elders/kpara


Individual Economic Relationships.

Chapter 13 Magic, Witchcraft And Sorcery




Legend Of The Mbuti Plantation

Legend Of Double Trickery

Chapter 14 Religion

Supernatural Beliefs





Satani (also Shaitani )

The Godhead

The Power Of Sound

The Lesser Molimo ( Molimo Madé )

The Greater Molimo ( Molimo Mangbo )

Chapter 15 Principles Of Organization (1)

The Forest Context

Chapter 16 Principles Of Organization (2)

The Village Context

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Wayward servants: the two worlds of the African Pygmies

Published By: Original publisher Garden City, N.Y.: The Natural History Press. 1965. 14, 391 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Colin M. Turnbull

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1995. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mbuti (FO04)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Tribe and nation (619);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document On the basis of an extensive and close association with a band of the Epulu net-hunters, Colin Turnbull examines the cultural factors contributing to the cohesiveness of the Mbuti bands and their independence of villager control. Turnbull rests the weight of his proof on examination of the puberty initiation and death rituals as practiced in the band. Turnbull concludes that the Mbuti Pygmies are quite self-reliant and have a value system which distinctly separates them fron the neighboring villagers.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 2

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fo04-002

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliography.|Includes index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1951, 1957, 1958

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Adolph Hoehling ; John Beierle

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). not specified

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Bambute


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