Clemmer, Richard O.. Roads in the sky: the Hopi Indians in a century of change

Table of Contents

Publication Information

1 Hopi Prophecy, The World System, And Modernization

Prophecy And Events

Roads In The Sky?

A Brief Introduction To Hopi Culture, History, And Context

The World System, Modernization, And Cultural Pluralism

Indigenous Autonomy

The Two Modernities

The First Modernity

The Second Modernity

2 An Introduction To Hopi Society And Material Conditions

Modern Hopis And Their Culture

Hopis And Their Land

The Modern Seasonal Round

Hopis' “first” Modernity: “progress” And Material Conditions In The Twentieth Century

Hopis' “second” Modernity: Dissent And Critique

Hopi Culture And History In The Twentieth Century

3 Spaniards, Navajos, Mormons: 1540–1875

1540: Hopis Encounter Spaniards

The Pueblo Revolt, 1680, And The Destruction Of Awat'ovi, 1700


The Spanish Era Concludes With Many Changes But Few Impacts On Hopi Culture

Material Conditions

Hopis And The Balance Of Political Power, 1680–1820

Hopi-navajo Relations In The Mexican Era, 1823–1848

The American Era


1858: Hopis Encounter Mormons

Worsening Environmental Conditions: 1884–1905

4 Hopi Culture On The Edge Of The Twentieth Century

Anthropology And Ethnography

The Dialogic Nature Of Anthropology

Frank Cushing: Collector-ethnologist

“as We Throw Dung Out Of The Plazas”

Anthropological Thinking In The Nineteenth Century

Unilineal Stage-sequence Evolutionism 13

Historical Particularism

The Naturalist Descriptive Convention

J.w. Powell, Collector-ethnographer

Stephen, Fewkes, Voth: Romantic Evolutionists In Search Of Clans, Ceremonies, And Secret Societies

Alexander Stephen's Baseline Ethnography

The Secret Societies

The Ceremonial Calendar

Society Chiefs

Who Governs?

Jesse Walter Fewkes, Ethnographer And Collector

H. R. Voth: Missionary, Ethnographer, Collector, Photographer, Intruder, Befriender Of The “hostiles”

The Overall Sense Of Hopi Ceremonialism

Lowie And Parsons: In Pursuit Of Clans

Elsie Clews Parsons: Historically Particularistic Reconstructor Of The Grand Scheme Of Hopi And Pueblo Clans, Lineages, And Ceremonialism

Clans, Lineages, And Wuyas

Structural-functionalism: A Key To Analyzing Hopi Society

Mischa Titiev In Old Oraibi: 1932–1934

Reconstructing A Picture Of Oraibi's Social Organization

Ceremonialism And Hopi Social Structure

Warfare, Warrior Sodalities, And Warrior Rituals

Law And Political Control: “who Governs” Reconsidered

The Oraibi Split Of 1906

The Clan As Lineage: Fred Eggan's Functionalist Research 22

Hopi Social And Ceremonial Organization: Summary 26

Women's Power And Men's Ambivalence

5 The Oraibi Split Of 1906 And The Great Transformation


The Political Ideology Of Assimilation

The Nature Of Political Things

The Intent Of Congress

Implementing The Ideology At Hopi

Creating The 1882 Reservation

The Great Transformation: Economy And Demography

Cash Income: Farming, Livestock, Wage Labor, Contract Freighting

Disaster: Drought, Depression, Deprivation, And Arroyo Cutting


Variations In Land Tenure

A Summary Of Economic And Political Context

The Events: 1890–1909

The Government's Role

Consequences Of The Events: Summary

Explanations I: Conspiracy Theory

Explanations Ii: Anthropological

Explanations Iii: Human Agency

Standpoints And Motivations

Immediate Consequences: Anticipated And Unanticipated; Intended And Unintended

Interpretation Of The Historical, Political, And Economic Context

Conclusion: Culture, Ideology, Politics, And Society

6 Reorganization: 1910–1945

Reorganization Of The Sociopolitical Fabric

The Reorganization Of Culture

American Reformers And Liberals And Their Influence

The Reformers' Assault On Culture And Religion

The Seeding And Nurturing Of The Partisans: 1921–1924

An End To Ceremonies? Religious Repression

Reorganization Of The Economy: Cash And Markets

Arts And Crafts: An Early Source Of Cash

Hopi Nouveau, Hopi Deco, And The Bases For Public Taste

Livestock, Stores, And Cash Flow

The Indian New Deal And The Indian Reorganization Act

The Reorganization Of Politics

Oliver La Farge Among The Hopi

The Constitution

“acceptance” Of The Ira: Voting Population And Demography

The Fate Of Political Reorganization

Reorganization: The Economic Factor

Reorganization: Conclusion

7 The Rise Of The Traditionalists: 1946–1977

The Nature Of Political Ideology

Consequences Of Ira Implementation: Economic Context

Applied Anthropology

Laura Thompson's Indian Personality And Administration Project

The Acculturation Framework

The Political Context: The “lousy Plan” Of Termination

Long Range Planning By The Hopi Agency

Social Movements

The Traditionalist Movement

Who Are The “traditionalists”?


Traditionalist Ideology

Letter To The President, 1949

Traditionalist Ideology During The “rehabilitation” Decade

Ideology: Summary 75

Traditionalist Activities

What Did The Traditionalists Accomplish?

The Traditionalists In Comparative Framework

The Traditionalists' Vision: New Politics And New Symbols

8 Mineral Leasing, 1961–1989

The Economic Context Of Mineral Leasing

The U.s. Context: Economy

Levels Of Social, Cultural, And Political Integration

Hopi Economy, Demography, And Material Conditions

The Council's Revival

The Quorum Issue

The Hopi Hearings

Mineral Leasing And The Hopi-navajo Land Dispute

Hopi Mineral Leasing: The Economic Imperative

The Mineral Imperative

Minerals On Indian Land

Mineral Leasing At Hopi

Oil Leases

The Coal Leases

Mining Coal On Black Mesa

The Pipeline

The Consortium


Environmental Concerns

Hopis Take The Situation In Hand

Mineral Leasing: Source Of Capital

Capital In General

Tribal Income: Entry Into The Capitalist Market

Investing Mineral Capital: The Bvd Fiasco

Summary And Conclusion: Bringing The State Back In

9 The Hopi-navajo Land Dispute: 1958–1993

A Range War?

No Range War

The Tiponi

The Land Dispute: Historical And Demographic Context

Hopis And Navajos Within The 1882 Reservation

The Indian Claims Commission

Aboriginal Title

Act Of Congress, 1958: Settling The Mineral Estate

Healing V. Jones

Traditional Navajos

Prospects Of Evictions And Federal Marshals

Pl 93-531; An Act To Provide For Final Settlement…

The Relocation Plan

The Relocation Process

Resistance To The Settlement Act

Navajo-hopi Unity Committee

The Un Subcommission

Land Exchange Proposals

A Better Relocation Plan For Navajos?

The Navajo New Lands

Hopi Relocations Onto Hpl

“original, Ancillary, Supplementary Actions”

The Accounting, Owelty, Damage, Use Rental, And New Construction Lawsuits

The Mineral Tax Case

The “fiduciary Trust” Trespass Suit

The 1934 Navajo Reservation Boundary Case

Manybeads And Mediation


Hopis' Objections To Mediation

Hopis' Ten Preconditions For Participating In Mediation

The “agreement In Principle”


Failure Of The Agreement In Principle

Land Dispute Explanations I: Conspiracy Theory

The Mineral Imperative

Explanations Ii: “determinisms”: The Helpless Giant

Conclusion: Levels Of Integration And Modernization

Explanation Iii: Tribes, Ethnicity, And Internal Colonialism

10 Repatriation: The Present, The Future, And Beyond


Politics, Economics And Society: The 1970s And 1980s

Society In The 1980s

Culture In The 1980s And 1990s

The Nature Of Cultural Property

The Tourism Debates

Intellectual Cultural Property

Hopi Repatriation: A Short History


Collecting? Or Looting?


The “primitive Art” Market And The Looted Collectables

The Mask Bandit

Conclusion: Hopi Resistance To Commodification Of Culture

11 Conclusion: Hopi Society, The World System, And Modernization

Answers To Questions

Hopis In The Modern World System

The Split Of 1906


The Traditionalists

The Energy Leases

Ethnic Competition: The Hopi-navajo Land Dispute

Repatriating Culture

Political And Economic Modernization

A Homogenized World Culture?

The Modernity Of Tradition

A Final Word On Analyses Of Indigenous Societies

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Roads in the sky: the Hopi Indians in a century of change

Published By: Original publisher Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. 1995. xiv, 377 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Richard O. Clemmer

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Hopi (NT09)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Acculturation and culture contact (177); Sociocultural trends (178); Real property (423); Renting and leasing (427); Sodalities (575); Ingroup antagonisms (578); Clans (614); External relations (648); Public welfare (657); Political parties (665);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Clemmer presents in this book a description of Hopi social organization, economy, religion, and politics as well as key events in the history of Hopi-United States relations from the late nineteenth century to the 1990s. The author notes that despite one hundred years under the dominant American culture, Hopi society today (the 1990s) maintains cultural continuity with its aboriginal roots, while reflecting the effects of the twentieth century. This work focuses "…on six major events in Hopi history: a factionalist schism that split the largest Hopi village, Oraibi, into three villages; the impact of the federal Indian Reorganization Act of 1934; the rise of a political movement known as 'traditionalism' the story behind far-reaching oil and coal leases in the 1960s; the Hopi-Navajo land dispute; and the disappearance of ceremonial objects into private collections and museums" (p. 354).

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 49

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nt09-049

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 331-353) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1968-1990s

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle; 1999

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). late nineteenth century - 1990s

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Hopi pueblos, First, Second and Third Mesas, northeastern Arizona, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Hopi Indians


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