Evaneshko, Veronica, 1936-. Tonawanda Seneca ethnic identity: functional and processual analysis

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1 Introduction

Identity Systems

Iroquoian Factionalism V. Solidarity

The Nature Of Ethnicity

Definitions Of Ethnicity

Ethnic Studies

Ethnic Delineation

Anthropological Theory

Structural-functional Model

Processual Model


Chapter 2 The Field Situation


Cultural And Personal Objectivity

The Tonawanda Seneca

Field Techniques

Preliminary Details

Selection Of Informants

Data Collection



Chapter 3 History Of The Iroquois Tribes

Prehistoric Cultural Institutions

Historical Chronology



Fur Trade Wars

Colonial Wars

Reservation Period

Chapter 4 Historical Events Pertaining To Ownership Of Land

British And Colonial Indian Affairs Title By Discovery Doctrine

Colonists' Attitudes

New York Sovereignty Over Iroquois Lands

Land Speculation

Separation Of Tonawanda Seneca From The Seneca Nation

Chapter 5 Contemporary Tonawanda Reservation

Physical Characteristics Of The Reservation


Contemporary Social Institutions

Clan System


Birth And Early Childhood

Naming Practices

Later Childhood


Native Language


Health System

Political System

Religious System

Chapter 6 Tonawanda Seneca Ethnic Symbols



Ethnic Symbols

Ethnic Symbols From Historical Experiences

Historical Experiences

Culture Content

Group Image


Chapter 7 Structural-functional Analysis

Major Ethnic Symbols

Land As An Ethnic Symbol

The Significance Of Land

Chapter 8 Processual Analysis

Technical And Ecological Incentives And Constraints

Social And Cultural Incentives And Constraints

Clan Involvement And Inheritance Issues

Personal Incentives And Constraints

Strength Of Tonawanda Seneca Ethnic Identity

Chapter 9 Comparison Of Structural-functional And Processual Analyses


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Tonawanda Seneca ethnic identity: functional and processual analysis

Published By: Original publisher Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International. 1974 [1975 copy]. [ii], xv, 235 leaves ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Veronica Evaneshko

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1996. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Iroquois (NM09)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Cultural identity and pride (186); Real property (423); Acquisition and relinquishment of property (425); External relations (648); Public welfare (657);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The topic of Tonawanda Senceca ethnic identity is used in this dissertation as a vehicle of comparing and contrasting two anthopological theories and methodologies -- the structural-functional frame of reference and the processual analysis framework. The structural-functional frame of reference is first used to describe the Tonawanda Senecas' ethnic symbol system. These symbols, derived from the historical experience and cultural content of the society, work together to produce a group image and group solidarity. The ethnic symbol system is then analyzed for its contribution in understanding Tonawanda Seneca behavior. A major determinant of group behavior is found to be the Tonawanda Senecas' attitudes and beliefs regarding the significance of their relationship to land (p. 220). The information gathered from this analysis provides one kind of explanation for the Tonawanda Senecas' behavior in rejecting a government housing program, (described in detail in the text). The '…alternative anthropological theoretical frame of reference -- the processual model -- suggests that the ethnic symbol of land may be viewed as an epiphenomenon of individual choice and decision made during daily social transactions' (p. 221).

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 59

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nm09-059

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: UM: 74-21,152 Thesis (Ph.D.) -- The University of Arizona, 1974 Includes bibliographical references (p. 222-235)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document May 1972-March 1973 (p. 29)

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1994

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). variable

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Seneca: Tonawanda Reservation, New York State, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Iroquois Indians


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