Weiss, Jerome. Folk psychology of the Javanese of Ponorogo

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1: Folk Psychology And Folk Science

Ethnoscience And Folk Science .

Defining “folk Psychology”

Extensional Definition

A Javanese “science Of Life”

The Folk Psychologist

Javanese Folk Psychologists

Folk Psychology And Ethnography


Chapter 2: The Research



Data Collection

Field Assistants


The Santri-abangan Dichotomy

The Dissertation

Transcriptions And Translations Of Texts




Chapter 3: Behavior And Personality As Javanese Concepts

The Javanese Lexicon Of Behavior

Some Categories Of General Behavior

Tindak Tanduk, Tingkah Laku, Kalakuwan

Solah Bawa

Solah Tingkah, Polah Tingkah

Panggawé, Tingkah, Pokal, Pakarti

Laku, Lagu

Categories Of Physical Movement

Terms Referring To Physical Movement


Terms Referring To Patterns Of Habitual Behavior



Manner Of Execution

Observable Behavior And Internalized Behavior


A Javanese Theory Of Personality

ḍasar : The Biological Base

Two Senses Of Dasar

Watak: Innate Personality

Inner And Outer Personality Structures

Manifest Personality

Comparison With Innate Personality

Some Categories Of Manifest Personality

Social Character

Characteristic Traits

Inner Personality

The “heart” As A Metaphorical Center Of Character

Moral Character

Discrepancies Between Inner And Outer Structures

“multiple Personalities”

Strength Of The Innate Personality

Heredity And Learning In Personality Formation


Explanation Of Behavior

Usual Behavior

Postnatal Influences As Explanations

God's Will/destiny/“law” Of Karma


Friendships/social Contacts

Foodstuffs/imbalances Of Vital Substances

Supernatural Beings

Black Magic

Objects And Places Having Power

Unusual Mental States/altered States Of Consciousness

Uncontrolled Drives




Enabling Factors


Chapter 4: Structure And Formation Of The Biological Base

Composition Of The Base


External Physical Traits

Internal Physical Traits

Ancestral Traits


Special Abilities

Innate Power



Innate Personality

“spirit” Of The Base

Formation Of The Base

Influences Before Conception



Planned Reincarnation

Unplanned Reincarnation

Reunion With God

Length Of The Cycle

Relationship To Personality Traits

“law” Of Karma

Inherited Sin

Santri Beliefs

Influences Attendant To Conception


Maternal And Paternal Inheritance

Persistence Of Hereditary Traits

Emotional Atmosphere

A Theory Of Conception

Effects Of Mental States

Illicit Sexual Relations

Auspicious And Inauspicious Days For Copulation

Auspicious Hours For Copulation

Place Of Copulation

Cleanliness And Health

Santri Practices

Influences During Gestation

Attitudes And Behavior Of Expectant Parents


Addressing The Expected Child

Implementing Desirable Traits

Objects In The Environment

Vital Substances

Celestial Light

Four Elements

Other Vital Substances

Length Of Pregnancy

Seventh Stage Of Foetal Development

Effects Upon Intelligence And Other Traits

Foetal Transfers

Source Of Inherited Traits

Influences At Birth

Closing Of The Base

Differences Among Components

Santri Beliefs

Formative Influences Upon The Base In Explanations Of Behavior



Chapter 5: Physiology And Innate Patterns Of Behavior

Innate Patterns Of Behavior


Two Meanings Of Naluri

Habitual Patterns Of Behavior

Cultural Instincts

Non-biological Explanations

Some “javanese Instincts”

Napsu : The Javanese Concept Of Drives

Four Napsus

Javanese Classifications

Islamic Classification

Comparison Of Javanese And Islamic Classifications

Relation To Instinct

Role Of Mutmainah

Relation To Emotions

Incidence In Animals

Incidence In Spirits


With The Five Senses

With Internal Organs (loci)

With Colors

With The Four Elements

With The “four Spiritual Relatives”

Role In Energizing Life Processes

Departure From The Body

Sensory Organs As Exits

Examples From Shadow Plays

Consequences Of Departure

Effecting Departure

Meeting One's Napsus

Repression Of Instincts And Drives

Relationships With Kabatinan


Practice In Connection With Javanese “science”

Effects On The Body

The Chain Of Vital Processes

Untitled Section: ...


Urip Nyawa

Cahya, Nur

Sukma, Atma

Roh, Rah

Respiration Cycle And Napsus


The Effect Of Foods

Untitled Section: ...
















“tastes” And “countertastes”



Chapter 6: Liver And Brain: The Physiology Of Cognition

A Javanese Theory Of Cognition

Common Views On Cognition

Relationship Between Cognitive And Sensory Systems

Volition And Feeling

Pak Dwidjo's Account Of Cognitive Process

Divisions Of The “heart”

“heart” As A Center Of Feeling And Emotion

Memory And Recall

Cognitive Process “mikir”

Cooperation Between “heart” And Brain

The Cognitive Process “nggagas”

The Cognitive Process “nyipta”

The Cognitive Process “ngripta”

Animal Cognition

A Second Informant's Account Of Cognition

Neurophysiological Bases Of Behavior

Innate Patterns

Conscious Cognitive Process

Effects Of External Influences


Chapter 7: Knowledge, Science, And Power: Javanese Epistemology

A Javanese Theory Of Knowledge And Science

Èlmu : The Javanese Concept Of Science

Comparison Of Eastern And Western Science

Èlmu Kajawan : Javanese Science

Science Of “calculations ”

Experts In “calculations”

Javanese Magic As “science”



Names Of “sciences”

History Of “sciences”

A Classification Of Sciences

Èlmu Kabatinan

Èlmu Kanoragan

Èlmu Pangasihan

Èlmu Panugrahan

Combat Sciences

Extra-sensory Perception As A Source Of Knowledge


The Hierarchy Of Feeling

Rasa Sejati: Pure Feeling

Psychic Ability, Qualitative And Quantitative

Levels Of Epistemology And Spiritual Development

Psychic Experiences

Supernatural Inspiration

Inspiration Through Rigorous Abstinences

Santri Efforts To Obtain Inspiration

Wahyu Lailatul Kadar

Inspiration As Special Abilities

Other Conceptions Of Inspiration

Spirits As Sources


Classification According To Cause

Impèn Cakra Bawa

Impèn Sudarsana

Impèn Dara-dasih

Impèn Waskiṭa

Likelihood Of Materialization

Classification According To Time

Use Of “calculations”

Averting Foretold Disasters

Dreams Sent By Spirits

Erotic Dreams

Instruction As A Source Of Knowledge

Advantages Of Instruction

Restrictions On Instruction

Responsibilities Of Teachers

Method And Content Of Instruction

Lack Of Èlmu As An Enabling Factor

Implications Of Lack Of Èlmu

Relationship To Other Enabling Factors

Spiritual Weakness

Mental Weaknesses



Chapter 8: Mental States

States Of Normal Consciousness

Mental States As Explanations Of Behavior

Explanations Of Mental States

Altered Consciousness



Mental States During Asceticism

Cognitive Disorientation



Other States


Differences In Perceptual Distortion Among Mental States


Categories Of Possession

Named Categories

Kamong: Symbiotic Possession

Demonic Possession

Possession In Trance

Santri Beliefs

Other Forms Of Possession

Conventional Treatment

A ḍukun's Views On Exorcism

Pak Dwidjo's Views On Exorcism

Santri Views On Exorcism



Chapter 9: Javanese Folk Psychiatry

Javanese Neuroses And Psychoses

Neurotic Conditions

Psychotic Conditions

Chronic Mental Illness

Descriptive Expressions For Neurotic And Psychotic Conditions

Culture-bound Disorders


Ngamuk (amok)

The Etiology Of Psychoses

Treatment Of Psychotic Conditions

Relationship To Ethnomedicine

Diagnosis Of Psychotic Conditions

Diagnosis Of Etiology

Strategies For Treatment

One ḍukun's Strategy

Calculations To Determine Treatment

Consistency Of Calculations

Valid Causes Of Illness And Their Treatment

Chronic Insanity

Protective Magic


Purifying Baths

Post-bath Treatment

Pacifying Patients

A Second ḍukun's Strategy

Interviews And Counseling

Desiccation Of The Brain

Dislocation Of Cognitive Organs Or Blood Vessels.

Foreign Objects In The Body

Black Magic

Use Of The Talisman Rajah Gaman Cakra

Santri Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

Untreated Mental Illness



Chapter 10: Personality Diagnostics

Personality Assessment

Pirasats : Physical And Behavioral Correlates Of Personality

Candras ; Sets Of Pirasats


Applicability To Children

Similarities Between Human And Wayang Candras

Facial Features

Posture And Walking Gaits

Pirasats For Ideal Traits

Variable And Invariable Traits As Pirasats

Fatness And Thinness

Consistency And Contradiction Among Pirasats

Javanese Horoscopes As Indicators Of Personality

Uses Of Horoscopes

Calendrical Units In Horoscopes

Consistency And Inconsistency In Horoscopes

Names As Indicators Of Personality

Principles Of Name Selection

Differences Between Rural And Urban Areas

Names As Diagnostics

Relationship To ḍasar

Calculations For Marital Compatibility

Joḍo: Marital Compatibility

Prohibited Matches

Relationship Between “calculations” And Personal Compatibility

Matches Discouraged By Calculations

Identical And Equivalent Birthdays

Even Numerical Totals

Combinations Of Days Of Birth

Minor “calculations”

Personality Traits Of Spouses In Encouraged Matches



Chapter 11: Classifications Of Personality


Regional And Ethnic Stereotypes

Parable Of Ethnic Stereotypes


Central Javanese

Madurese And Natives Of Surabaya

Natives Of Other Areas

Natives Of Ponorogo


Comparison With Madurese And Surabayans

Attitudes Of Natives Of Other Areas

Somatic Stereotypes

Astrological Stereotypes


The Wayang Literature As A Potential Source For Classifications Of Personality

Linguistic Use Of Wayang Names

Use Of Nicknames







Use Of Panḍawas As Symbols

Cosmic Symbolism

Ideal Types

Associations With The Senses And Napsus

Associations With The Fingers

Janaka And His Wives As Symbols Of Ideal Types



Chapter 12: Personality And Behavior, Ideal And Deviant

Ideal Patterns Of Behavior

Prominent Themes In Javanese Life

Javanese Vices

Ideal Personality Traits

Ideal Traits In The Teachings Of A Kabatinan Organization

Comments From Pak Dwidjo



Lila, Lila Legawa

Ikhlas, Tulus

Deviants And Deviance

Ora Lumrah : The Javanese Concept Of Deviance

The Deviant As A Danger To Social Solidarity

Refusal To Hold Slametans

Refusal To Lend Money


Relationship Of Deviance To Character

Relationship Of Deviance To Budi Pekerti

Differences In Local Tradition



Chapter 13: The Javanese Theory Of Behavior: Discussion And Concluding Remarks

Summary Of Explanatory Factors For Human Behavior

Untitled Section: ...

Usual Behavior

Unusual Behavior

Enabling Factors

Outline Of Factors Accounting For Behavior

How Javanese Formulate Explanations Of Behavior

Factors Motivating Choice Among Alternative Explanations

Conjecture And Empirical Fact


Self-interest And Attitude Toward The Actor


Improbable Matches

Convergent Principles

Indeterminacy Of Causal Factors, Saliency Of Collateral Factors

Concluding Remarks

Appendix 1: Death And Afterwards

The Javanese Concept Of Death

Expressions Meaning “to Die”

Death As The Withdrawal Of Life

Life States And Death States



Kena Arakan

Mati Sajeroning Urip

Signs Of Impending Death

Perfect And Imperfect Death

Helping The Departed Reach The Spirit World

At Death

Interment And The Funerary Slametan

Post-funerary Slametans

Entry Into The Spirit World

Decomposition And Liberation

Earthbound Spirits

The “cord Of Feeling”

Kinds Of Spirits

Spirits That Terrify


Spirit Children

Contacts With Spirits

Teasing Spirits



Veneration Of Ancestral Spirits


Appendix 2: Javanese Science

“ Sciences ”

Untitled Section: ...

Èlmu Welut Putih

Èlmu Brama Beḍali

Èlmu Bergenèn

Èlmu Wisnu Gunting

Èlmu Pambayan

Èlmu Pambungkeman

Èlmu Panyirepan

Èlmu Pangerupan

Èlmu Panglarisan

Èlmu Panulakan

Aji “sapa Sira Sapa Ingsun”

Astrological “calculations”

Dina ‘weekday’

Untitled Section: ...

Akad ‘sunday’

Senèn ‘monday’

Slasa ‘tuesday’

Rabo ‘wednesday’

Kamis ‘thursday’

Juma'at ‘friday’

Setu ‘saturday’

Pasaran ‘market Day’

Untitled Section: ...






Combination Of Dina And Pasaran

Without Calculation

Akad Kliwon

Senèn Legi

Slasa Pahing

Rabo Pon

Kamis Wagé

Juma'at Kliwon

Setu Legi

Akad Pahing

Senèn Pon

Slasa Wagé

Rabo Kliwon

Kamis Legi

Juma'at Pahing

Setu Pon

Akad Wagé

Senèn Kliwon

Slasa Legi

Rabo Pahing

Kanis Pon

Juma'at Wagé

Setu Kliwon

Akad Legi

Senèn Pahing

Slasa Pon

Rabo Wagé

Kamis Kliwon

Juma'at Legi

Setu Pahing

Akad Pon

Senèn Wagé

Slasa Kliwon

Rabo Legi

Kamis Pahing

Juma'at Pon

Setu Wagé

With Calculations

Wukus (175)

“calculations” For Names

Medical “calculations”


Untitled Section: ...

Pirasats Provided By Pak Dwidjo

Pirasats Provided By Mbak Di

A Candra For Women

References Cited

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Folk psychology of the Javanese of Ponorogo

Published By: Original publisher Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International. 1978 [1982 copy]. 3, 10, 671 leaves ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Jerome Weiss

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2019. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Javanese (OE05)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Ethnopsychology (828); Ethnophysiology (827); Eschatology (775); Ethnoanatomy (826); Ethnosociology (829); Drama (536); Personal names (551); Asceticism (785); Revelation and divination (787); Magicians and diviners (791); Vocabulary (192);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document “Behavior that is usual for an actor is explicable in terms of personality structures and biological makeup; and behavior that is unusual is explicable in terms of factors that are external to personality, biological makeup, and normal ego-consciousness. However, external factors cannot influence an actor’s behavior unless he is weak, spiritually or mentally, or possess no Javanese science that he can put into practice.” (p. 571) This statement briefly summarizes the position of J. Weiss as he concludes an intensive analysis of folk psychology of Javanese in the town of Ponorogo. His study includes an investigation of behavior and personality as Javanese concepts; structure and formation of the biological base (of the Javanese concept of personality); knowledge, science and power: Javanese epistemology; mental states; Javanese folk psychiatry; personality diagnosis; ideal and deviant behavior. Weiss also includes an index containing a summary of Javanese notions and customs regarding death and afterwards. Pp. 634-638 have been retyped by HRAF because of mechanical problems.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 28

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. oe05-028

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: UM 78-1571 Thesis (Ph.D.)--Yale University, 1978 Includes bibliographical references

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1972-1973

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Del Childs ; 1982

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1972-1973

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) city of Ponorogo in east Central Java; village 16 km. southeast of Ponorogo, Java, Indonesia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Javanese (Indonesian people)


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