White, Benjamin Nicholas Forbes, 1946-. Production and reproduction in a Javanese village

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1: Theories Of Population Growth And Socioeconomic Change

Causes And Consequences Of Population Change

Population Growth In Anthropological Theory .

The Example Of English Demographic And Economic History

Relative Stability As The Normal Condition Of Human Populations.

Control Of Fertility In Pro-industrial Societies .

Further Problems With Demographic Determinism.

Political Economy As The Determinant Of Demographic Behaviour .

Postscript .

Chapter 2: Production, Reproduction And The “value Of Children” In Peasant Societies

Recent Research On The Importance Of Children In Peasant Societies

Chapter 3: Regional Background, Definition Of The Problem

Regional Background: Population And Poverty, Involution And Employment In Rural Java

Fertility Levels In Rural Java

The “desire For Children”

Involution, Shared Poverty And Employment

Technological Aspects Of Involution: Labour-intensification And Low Labour Productivity

Distributional Aspects Of Involution: “shared Poverty”

Preliminary Statement Of The Problem: Material Consequences Of Reproductive Behaviour In An “overpopulated” Javanese Village .

Selection Of The Village

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter 4: Population, Land And The Distribution Of Resources In Kali Loro .


Changes In Irrigation And Cropping Cycles

“village” And “hamlet”

Population And Land

Distribution Of Access To Land

Distribution Of Occupations

Estimation Of Household Incomes

Rice Prices And Hard Times

Chapter 5: Village Economy: Varieties Of Productive Activity

Units Of Comparison

Rice Cultivation

Inputs, Yields And Farm-size

Returns To Labour

Rental And Sharecropping

Sharecropping: The Importance Of Household Labour


Pekarangan Cultivation 11

Poultry And Livestock

Goats, Sheep, Cattle And Water-buffalo

Wage Labour In Agriculture

Non-agricultural Wage Labour

Salaried Jobs

Preparation Of Food For Sale .

Chapter 6: Multiple Producers, Multiple Occupations, Low Returns And Long Working Hours

Evidence Of Annual And Seasonal Work-duration Rates

Seasonality In The Quantity And Allocation Of Work-inputs

Untitled Section: ...

Chanter 8: Children In Household Production: The Value Of Children's Work

Early Years

The Age Of Starting To Work

Parents' Estimations Of The Age At Which Their Children Began To Work

The Allocation Of Children's Time In Household Production

Comparison Of Children's And Adults' Work

Relative Efficiency Of Children And Adults In Various Kinds Of Work .

Chapter 9: Children As A Source Of Security In Old Age

The Needs Of The Elderly: Food, Clothing, Shelter, Care In Sickness And The Performance Of Ritual Obligations After Death .

Transfer Of Property To Children In Exchange For Security .

Marital And Residential Patterns Of The Elderly

Old Age Security And Fertility

Chapter 10: The Costs And Benefits Of Producing People


Time Lost In Birth And Child-care



Ceremonial Costs

Control Of Children's Labour And The Costs Of Out-migration

The Material Consequences Of Reproduction In Kali Loro .

Advantages Of Reproduction

Disadvantages Of Reproduction

Afterword: Non-malthusian Roads To Population Control

Untitled Section: ...

Appendix A: Evidence For Population Change And Voluntary Control Of Reproduction In Kali Loro

I. The Evidence For Population Change And Its Components

Age At Marriage .

Other Factors Reducing Exposure To Intercourse And Conception .

Mortality Rates .

Migration .

Ii. Evidence On Fertility And Voluntary Control Of Reproduction

Limitations Of The Data .

The Sample .

Numbers Of Ever-born And Numbers Of Living Children .


Pregnancy Wastage.

Contraceptive Practices; Their Relation To Numbers Of Living Children And To “desired Number Of Children” .

“desired” Number Of Children .

Contraceptive Practices In Kali Loro .

Appendix B: Methods Of Data-collection And Analysis

1. Village-level Statistics

2. Selection Of Six Sample Hamlets.

3. Basic Household Survey (478 Households) In The Six Sample Hamlets .

4. Samples Of Households For Intensive Study .

5. Other Data Collected From Samples And Subsamples Of Households .

6. Other Research Activities .

Cooperation By Members Of The Sample Households, And Reliability Of The Time-allocation Data .

Problems In Data Handling And Analysis

Appendix C: Rice Cultivation

I. Description Of The Process Of Rice Cultivation

A. Selection And Storage Of Seed .

B. Seed Germination

C. Preparation Of The Seed-bed .

D. Seeding And Care Of Growing Shoots

E. Soil Preparation

F. Transplanting

G. Weeding And Fertilizing

H. Harvest.

Ii. Inputs And Yields In Rice Cultivation

Appendix D: Indicators Of Economic Performance In The 20-household Sample

Selection Of The 20-household Sample


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Production and reproduction in a Javanese village

Published By: Original publisher Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International. 1976 [1982 copy]. 4, 12, 494 leaves ill., map

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Benjamin Nicholas Forbes White

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2019. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Javanese (OE05)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Theoretical orientation in research and its results (121); Status of children (858); Child care (855); Conception (842); Household (592); Termination of marriage (586); Infant feeding (853); Ceremonial during infancy and childhood (852); Division of labor by gender (462); Income and demand (434); Labor and leisure (461); Family relationships (593); Infant care (854);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This source examines population increase in Java by examining the costs and benefits of children to peasant households. The author argues that the benefits of children to their parents in terms of work done, income, security, and savings outweigh the costs of having children. The argument is supported with data on household economics, household productive activities, and time allocations. In addition there are more general ethnographic data and data on reproductive control strategies.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 26

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. oe05-026

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: UM8026991 Thesis (Ph.D.)--Columbia University, 1976 Includes bibliographical references

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1972-1973

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Eleanor C. Swanson ; 1982

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1972-1973

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) village of Kali Loro in Kabupaten (regency) of Kulon Progo, 35 km. northwest of Yogyakarta, south Central Java, Indonesia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Javanese (Indonesian people)


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