Geertz, Clifford. The religion of Java

Table of Contents

Publication Information


Part One The “abangan” Variant

Chapter 1 The Slametan Communal Feast As A Core Ritual

The Slametan Pattern

The Meaning Of The Slametan

Chapter 2 Spirit Beliefs

Memedis: Frightening Spirits

Lelembuts: Possessing Spirits

□ujuls: Familiar Spirits

□emits: Place Spirits

□anjangs: Guardian Spirits

The Meaning Of Spirit Beliefs

Chapter 3 The Slametan Cycles

Pétungan: The Javanese Numerological System

Costs Of Slametans

Chapter 4 The Slametan Cycles: Birth





Chapter 5 The Slametan Cycles: Circumcision And Marriage

Circumcision: Sunatan

Marriage: Kepanggihan

Social And Economic Aspects Of Circumcision And Wedding Ceremonies

Chapter 6 The Slametan Cycles: Death

Funerals: Lajatan

Beliefs And Attitudes Concerning Death

Chapter 7 The Slametan Cycles: Calendrical, Village, And Intermittent Slametans

Calendrical Slametans

The Village Slametan: Bersih Désa

Intermittent Slametans

Chapter 8 Curing, Sorcery, And Magic

The □ukun: Curer, Sorcerer, And Ceremonial Specialist

Curing Techniques

Theory Of Disease And Curing

The Possessed Curer: □ukun Tiban

Secondary Curing Methods: Magic, Drugs, And Western Medicine


Chapter 9 Permai: A Modern Abangan Cult

Part Two The “santri” Variant

Chapter 10 Santri Versus Abangan

Islam: A General Introduction

The Development Of Islam In Indonesia

Santri Versus Abangan: General Differences

Chapter 11 The Development Of Islam In Modjokuto

The Rise Of Modernism: 1910–1940

The Japanese Period: 1942–1945

The Republican Period: 1945 To The Present

Chapter 12 Conservative Versus Modern: The Ideological Background

1. Fate Versus Self-determination

2. Totalistic Versus Narrowed Religion

3. Syncretic Versus Puristic Islam

4. Religious Experience Versus Religious Behavior

5. Custom And Scholasticism Versus Pragmatism And Rationalism

Conservative And Modern Islam And The Traditional Javanese Religious Outlook

Chapter 13 Patterns Of Internal Organization Of The Santri Community

Political-religious Leadership

Political-religious Activity

Political-religious Organization

Conservative Versus Modern: A Balanced Opposition

Chapter 14 The Santri Educational System

Pon□ok: The Traditional Pattern

Langgar And Mosque: The Local Santri Community

Tarékat: Traditional Islamic Mysticism

Pon□ok To Sekolah: The Santri Educational System In Modjokuto

The Pon□ok Pattern In Modjokuto

Madrasah: The Conservative School In Modjokuto

The Modern Religious School In Modjokuto

Religion In The Public Schools In Modjokuto

Chapter 15 The Administration Of The Moslem Law: Islam And The State In Modjokuto

The General Organization Of The Ministry Of Religion

The Local Organization Of The Ministry Of Religion

Marriage And Divorce

Religious Foundations And The Pilgrimage

Religious Propaganda And Village Religious Officials

The Ministry Of Religion And The Santri Political Parties

The Islamic State: The Santri Approach To The Problem Of Church And State

Chapter 16 The Santri Ritual Pattern

The Prayers

The Friday Service

The Fast

Part Three The “prijaji” Variant

Chapter 17 The Background And General Dimensions Of Prijaji Belief And Etiquette

The Development Of A “great Tradition”

Gentry And Peasantry In Java

Basic Concepts In The Prijaji World-view

Prijaji Versus Abangan: General Differences

Literati Versus Intelligentsia

The General Dimensions Of Prijaji Belief

The Role Of Etiquette

Linguistic Etiquette

Chapter 18 The Role Of Classical Art

Wajang: The Shadow Play

Wajang Stories

Prijaji Versus Abangan Views Of The Wajang

Prijaji Interpretations Of The Wajang

The Gamelan: Javanese Music

The Tembang: Javanese Poetry

The Djogèd: Javanese Dance

Ba□ik: Javanese Textile Dyeing

Classical Javanese Art: Summary

Chapter 19 The Role Of Popular Art

Popular Drama: Wajang Wong, Ke□oprak, And Ludrug

Street Dancers: Klè□èk, Djaranan, And Djanggrung

The Tajuban: A Javanese Party


Contemporary Art

Orchestras And Popular Singers

Contemporary Literature, Drama, And Motion Pictures

Contemporary Art And The Emerging “youth Culture”

Chapter 20 Mysticism

The Theory Of Mysticism

1. The Inner Connection Between Happiness And Unhappiness

2. The Fundamental Religious Equation

3. The Search For Ultimate Enlightenment And “this-worldly” Mysticism

4. Mystical Discipline

5. Metaphysical Psychology

6. The Teacher ( Guru )—student ( Murid ) Pattern

7. The Underlying Identity Of Individuals And The Organic Theory Of Social Organization

8. Religious Relativism

Chapter 21 The Mystical Sects

Budi Setia


Kawruh Bedja

Ilmu Sedjati

Kawruh Kasunjatan

The Social Implications Of The Mystical Sects

Part Four Conclusion: Conflict And Integration

Chapter 22 Conflict And Integration

Religion And Society In Modjokuto

Religion And Social Conflict

Ideological Conflicts

Class Conflicts

Political Conflicts

Psychological Factors

Religion And Social Integration

Traditionalism And The Inherited Common Culture

Nationalism And The Projection Of A New Common Culture

Mixed Types And Marginal Groups: Social Structural Factors

Tolerance And Pluralistic Social Integration

The Holidays—ceremonies Of Social Integration And Conflict

National Holidays

Rijaja: The End Of Fast Holiday

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The religion of Java

Published By: Original publisher Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press. [1960]. xvi, 396 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Clifford Geertz

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Javanese (OE05)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Organized ceremonial (796); Religious denominations (795); Theological systems (779); Classes (565); General character of religion (771); Ethnopsychology (828); Ethnosociology (829); Spirits and gods (776); Drama (536); Sociolinguistics (195); Education system (871); Religious intolerance and martyrs (798); Political parties (665);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This source is a detailed descriptive account of Javanese religion in Modjokuto. It is divided into three sections. The section on Abangan religion includes information on the slametan rituals, spirit beliefs, curing, sorcery, magic, and the Permai cult. The section on Santri religion includes information on the Santri vs. the Abangan, the development of Islam in Modjokuto, conservatives vs. moderns, the internal organization of the Santri community, Muslim law and education, and the Santri ritual pattern. The section on the religion of the Prijaji includes information on Prijaji belief and etiquette, classical and popular art, mysticism, and the mystical sects. Geertz concludes the source with a discussion of disruptive and integrative factors in this sort of religious environment.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 18

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. oe05-018

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1952-1954

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Marlene Martin ; 1982

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1952-1954

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Mojokerto, East Java Province, Indonesia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Javanese (Indonesian people)/Java (Indonesia)--Religion


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