Hamilton, James W.. Pwo Karen: at the edge of mountain and plain

Table of Contents

Publication Information

1 The Karen In Southeast Asia


The Karen And Their Locations In Southeast Asia

Distribution Of Subgroups

Population, Density, And Size Of Village

Identification, Language, Origin, History


2 Ban Hong In Space And Time

Location And Access

The People Of The Village

Physical Description Of The Village

Village Demography

Historical Setting

Social Setting

The Culture In Outline


3 Ecology And Economic Activities In The Yearly Round


Climate, Soils, And Flora


Land Use

Village Agricultural Lands And Their History

Agriculture And Horticulture

Swidden (dry-rice)

Paddy (wet-rice)

Gardens And Trees

Animal Husbandry

Water Buffalo





Hunting And Gathering


Gathering And Collecting


Domestic Activities


Tool Manufacture


Village Work

Specialist Services


4 The Geometry Of Kinship And Descent


Kinship Terminology

Dang Relations


The Lineage

Lineage Functions




5 Household, Lineage Segment And Work Group

The Household




Divorce And Property

Division Of Labor

The Lineage Segment

Lineage Segment Functions

The Work-group

Ritual And Social Structure





6 Village And Village-complex

Village Structure

Village Headman

Other Specialists

The Village-complex

Summary Of Karen Social Organization


7 The Ban Hong Economy


Management Of Work In Karen Society

The Organization Of Distribution

The Organization And Patterns Of Consumption


8 Money And The Economy: Kinship, Bazaar, Market


The Need For Money

The Use Of Money

The Acquisition Of Money

Selling Subsistence Products

Cash Products And Crops

Wage Labor

Land Speculation

Household Income

General Considerations Of Duality

History And Cause Of The Duality


9 The Winds Of Time And Change: The Past


Factors And Evidence Of Change

Techno-economic Change

Social Change

Political Change

Ideological-religious Changes


10 Ten Years Later


Yanhee And The Environment

Demography And Social Structure



Political Administration


11 Conclusion: The Beginning



Appendix A Research Procedures

Appendix B Linguistic Note

Appendix F History, Location, And Use Of Paddy Land By Household

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Pwo Karen: at the edge of mountain and plain

Published By: Original publisher St. Paul: West Pub. Co.. 1976. xxiii, 354 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication James W. Hamilton

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2012. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Karen (AP07)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Cultural identity and pride (186); Community structure (621); Community heads (622); Territorial hierarchy (631); Inter-ethnic relations (629); External relations (648); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Internal trade (438); Exchange transactions (437); Labor supply and employment (464); Settlement patterns (361); Cereal agriculture (243); Buying and selling (432); Prayers and sacrifices (782); Inter-community relations (628); Labor relations (466);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This study is concerned with a before-and-after analysis of the Pwo Karen of northern Thailand. The focus is on the social structure, economic organization, and culture change due to natural and cultural variations within the environment. In so doing, the author asking the following: What are the adaptive processes whereby an ethnic culture becomes incorporated within a state as the state expands into local cultures? It shows the increasing dependence of the Karen upon Thai markets, which has caused some loss of cultural autonomy. Many Thai elements are being incorporated into the Karen view and way of life as a direct result of this dependence.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 33

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ap07-033

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 341-350) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1959-1969

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Anthropologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Teferi Abate Adem; 2011

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1826-1976

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Ban Hong village, Lamphun province, Northern region, Thailand

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Pwo Karen (Southeast Asian people)


Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the links below to export the citation to your chosen bibliographic manager.

Export a Citation