Reader, D. H.. Zulu tribe in transition: by D.H. Reader

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Untitled Section: ...

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter I Zulu History 1

Shaka 2



End Of Zulu Independence

Chapter Ii Tribal Background

Chapter Iii Agriculture



Social Values

Chapter Iv Tribal Economy

Tribal Cattle

Trade And Exchange

Hut Building And The Division Of Labour

Specialist Hut Building

Social Values

Chapter V Modern Economy

The Traders' Stores

The ‘farmers' Association’

The ‘cane-growers' Association’

The Experimental Farm

Social Values

Chapter Vi Land

Kraal And Hut Groupings

Land Units

The Territorial Sub-ward And Ward

Territorial Terms

Mission Reserve Land

Tribal Land Rights

Land Occupation By Females

Land Vacation And Re-apportionment

Commonage, Bush And Water

Grazing Rights

Bush Rights

Water Rights

Social Values

The Kinship System

Chapter Vii Population And Family Groups


The Family Group

Chapter Viii Extended Families And Descent Groups 1

The Extended Family

The ‘house’

The Descent Group

Descent-group Division

Descent-group Women

Descent-group Disruption

Dispersed Clanship

The Royal ‘maximal’ Descent Group

Chapter Ix Dominant Descent Groups

Section Seniority In Dominant Descent Groups

Chapter X Rank, Inheritance And Arbitration

Kinship Position And Rank

Descent-group Rank

Primogeniture And Succession

Inheritance And Succession

Descent-group Section Headship

Descent-group Headship

Arbitration Of Intra-descent-group Disputes

Summary And Interrelation

Social Values

Chapter Xi Rights And Obligations: Consanguineal 1

Second Descending Generation

Father's Brother

Husband's Father—husband's Father's Brother

Mother's Sister's Husband

Husband's Mother

Father's Brother's Wife

Mother's Brother's Wife

Husband's Mother's Brother

Brother's Children

Sister's Children


Father's Brother's Son

Husband's Brother


Father's Brother's Daughter

Husband's Sister

Brother's Wife—husband's Brother's Wife

Chapter Xii Rights And Obligations: Affinal

Husband And Wife

Sister's Husband—father's Sister's Husband

Sister's Husband's Brother—sister's Husband's Sister

Husband's Sister's Husband

Daughter's Husband—sister's Daughter's Husband—brother's Daughter's Husband

Daughter's Husband's Brother—daughter's Husband's Sister

Wife's Brother's Wife

Wife's Father—wife's Father's Brother

Wife's Mother

Wife's Sister's Husband


Sister's Husband's Parents

Chapter Xiii Pagan Marriage 1

1. Premarital Love Relationships

Ukuthembisa (promising)

Ukuqoma (choosing A Lover)

2. Normal Marriage-securing Negotiations

Ukucela (asking)

Monetary Demands

Subsequent Ukucela Visits

The Umkhongi's Reward

3. Abnormal Marriage-securing Devices


Baleka Procedure


Decline In Baleka



Thwala Procedure

4. The Ingquthu Beast

5 The Building-up Period

The Bride's Umbondo Visits

Visits For Sickness

6. Preparations For Marriage

Ukukhehla (putting Up The Hair)

Ukucimela (asking Of Approval)

Wedding Presents For Future Relatives

The Weddirg Date

Final Preparations

The Ukwendisa Beasts

Summary Of Marriage Beasts

7. Leaving Home


The Umkhongi's Summons

The Journey

The Wedding—the First Day

Arrival Of The Senior Umthimba

Summons To The Dance

Significance Of The Dance

The Speech Of The Bride's Father

The Bridal Dances

Asking The Girl

The Speech Of The Bridegroom's Father

Dances Of The Bridegroom's Party

The Beer-drink

The Second Day

The Integration Rites

The Bride's Thanksgiving


The Wedding Feast

The Third Day

The Bride's Symbolic Labour

Aggregation Rites


Ukukotiza (labour Under The Mother-in-law)

Chapter Xiv Christian Marriage

Premarital Relations

Ukucela (asking In Marriage)

Ukubaleka And Ukuthwala

Umbondo Visits

Preparing For Marriage

Christian Engagement Party

Final Preparations

The Wedding Day

The Church Service

The Secular Ceremony

Arrival Of The Senior Umthimba Party

Wedding Dancing

Economic Endowment

The Fathers' Speeches

Present Distribution

Wedding Feast


Summary And Analysis

The Politico-judicial System

Chapter Xv Political History

Chapter Xvi Political Units

Cohesive Political Factors

Disruptive Political Factors

Political Adjustment

The Mission Reserve

Higher-order Political Groups

Chapter Xvii The Political Hierarchy

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The Chief

Powers Of The Chief Over The Tribe

Obligations Of The Chief Towards The Tribe

The Regent

The Chief's Relatives And Councils

Senior Political Officers Of The Tribe

Izinduna And Abanumzane

Summary And Discussion

Chapter Xviii Organization For War And The Hunt

War Organization

The Regiments

Regiments, Regimental Sections And Ward Groups

Ward Groups And Crescents

Regimental Dispositions In The Crescent

Regimental Officers

The Great Captain Of The Regiments (induna 'nkulu Yamabutho)

The Great Captain's Assistant (iphini)

Ward Captains Of The Regiments (izinduna Zezigodi Zamabutho)


Ritual Preparation For War




Return Of The Army

Ritual Purification For Homicide


The Strengthening Of The Warriors (ukuqinisa Izinsizwe)

The Hunt

Social Values

Chapter Xix Courts Of Law And Their Sanctions

The Court Of Native Commissioner

The Magistrate's Court

The Chief's Court




Presumption Of Guilt


Negligence, Accident, Unfulfilled Intention And Drunkenness


Justifiable Provocation

Allowance For Plea Of Guilty, Character And Status Of The Wrongdoer

The Induna's Court

The Hearing Of The Case

At The Chief's Court

Execution Of Judgment

Social Values

The Umnumzane's Court


Social Systematics

Chapter Xx Structure And Value Theory

The Structural Model

Social Function

Social Value

Chapter Xxi Conclusion: Values In Social Change

The Territorial System

The Kinship System

The Politico-judicial System

Other Values

Social Change

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Zulu tribe in transition: by D.H. Reader

Published By: Original publisher [Manchester]: Manchester University Press. 1966. x, 363 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication the Makhanya of southern Natal

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2005. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Zulu (FX20)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Theoretical orientation in research and its results (121); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Sociocultural trends (178); Real property (423); Exchange and transfers (430); Cooperative organization (474); Family (590); Mode of marriage (583); Arranging a marriage (584); Nuptials (585); Kinship (600); Judicial authority (692); Trial procedure (695); Chief executive (643); Lineages (613); Clans (614); Instigation of war (721); Warfare (726);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This source, originally a doctoral thesis at Cambridge University, is a socio-political study of the Makhanya tribe, one of many subdivisions of the Zulu nation, who are located in Umlazi Magistracy District, Umbumbulu Township. The fieldwork was undertaken by the author, accompanied by his wife, during a period of fourteen months during the years 1950-1951. Prior to the actual fieldwork, the author did extensive secondary research in the relevant literature on the Zulu at Cambridge, and further supplemented this background information by attending a series of lectures at the University of Natal in order to learn something of the native language (p. ix). An interpreter, Charlie Njapha, who later turned out to be an excellent informant as well, was used throughout the period of fieldwork. The work is divided into four major sections. Part one, 'the territorial system,' deals generally with Zulu cultural history, tribal background, and economy. Part two, 'the kinship system,' describes family groupings, descent groups, and marriage patterns. Part three, 'the politico-judicial system,' deals primarily with the political organization of the Makhanya, their legal system, and the manner in which they were organized for warfare and the hunt. The final portion of the source, 'social systematics' is a theoretical analysis of structure and value systems and of social change.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 6

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fx20-006

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: 'Originally written as a doctoral thesis … Cambridge University.' Includes bibliographical references (p. 347-350)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1950-1951

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1979

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1800-1951

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Umbumbulu Township, Umlazi District KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Zulu (African people)


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