Krige, Eileen Jensen, 1904-. The social system of the Zulus

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter I Zulu History And Its Influence On The Tribes Of Southern Africa

Occupation Of Natal By The Bantu.

Break Up Of Nguni Into Ntungwa And Tekela Groups.

The Embo-, Ntungwa- And Thonga-nguni Move Into Natal.

The Rise Of The Mthethwa And Ndwandwe Powers.

Shaka And His Reorganisation Of The Zulu Kingdom.

Zwide Extends The Ndwandwe Kingdom And Defeats The Mthethwa.

Shaka Supreme In Zululand.

Far-reaching Effects Of Shaka's Wars.

European Traders At Shaka's Court.

Shaka's Tryanny.

The Death Of Shaka.

The Reign Of Dingane.

Umpande's Weak Rule.

Cetshwayo And His Conflict With The British.

The End Of Zulu Independence.

Chapter Ii Kinship System And Social Organisation Of The Zulus

Behaviour Patterns Within The Family.

Extension Of The Behaviour Pattern Towards The Father To Include His Relations.

Extension To The Mother's Relatives.


Further Extensions Of Behaviour Patterns And Terms Used In The Individual Family.


Relatives By Marriage.

Relatives-in-law Of The Wife And The Husband.

Other Relatives-in-law.

The Sib.


Chapter Iii The Zulu Village—food And Narcotics

Status Of Wives.

Arrangement Of The Village.

The Zulu Hut.

Village Life.

The Inmates Of The Village And Their Reception Of Strangers.

Moving To A New Village.

Preparation Of Food And The Division Of Meat.


Snuff And Smoking.

Chapter Iv Birth And Childhood

Observances During Pregnancy.

The Birth.

Strengthening The Child.


End Of Isolation.


Warding Off Epidemics.

The New Baby And Its Mother's Relations.

The Weaning.

Naming The Child.

Abnormal Births And Beliefs About Twins.

The Life Of Children And The Games They Play.

Chapter V Transition From Childhood To Adulthood

The Qhumbuza.

Preparations And Precautions.

The Officiator.

The Sacrifice.

The Operation.

End Of The Ceremony.

A Collective Qhumbuza.

Seclusion Of The Children.

The Thank-offering And The Operation.

Boy's Puberty Ceremony.

Driving Out The Cattle ( Ukwemuka Kwezinkomo ).

Strengthening The Boy.

Isolation Period.


The Day Of Sacrifice.

The Feasting.

End Of Seclusion.

The Boy's Puberty Dance.

The Ukudlakudla.

Modern Thomba Ceremonies.

Girl's Puberty Ceremony And Recognition Of Her Marriageable State.

Seclusion Of The Girl.

Umsindo Feast And Aggregation Rites.

The Public Recognition Of The Marriageable State Of A Girl.

Control Of Young Girls By The Group Of Elder Girls.

Pre-marital Intercourse.

The Ukuбuthwa.

The Ukuбuthwa In The Old Days.

Assembly At The Royal Kraal For A Modern Ukuбuthwa.

Life During The Бuthwa Period.

Length Of The Ukuбuthwa And The Naming Of The New Regiment.

Dispersal And End Of The Ukuбuthwa Period.

Бonga Sacrifice.

The Ukubuthwa Of 1925.

Relation Of The Ukuбuthwa To Circumcision Schools In Other Tribes.

Period Before Marriage.

Putting On The Head-ring Or Top-knot ( Khehla ).

Chapter Vi Marriage Ceremonies

Untitled Section: ...

Principles Underlying A Zulu Marriage.

Informal Betrothal ( Qoma ).

Forms Of Marriage Negotiations.

Formal Bethrothal ( Ukucela ).


The Ingquthu Beast And Some Of The Rules Connected With Loбola.

Umбondo Gifts Of Beer From The Bride's Family.

Preparations For Marriage.

Leaving Home.

The Ukwendisa.

Arrival At Bridegroom's Kraal And The Qhuбushela Singing.

The Day Of The Wedding Dances.

The First Of The Aggregation Rites—the Killing Of The Umqholiso.

First Sexual Intercourse And The Ceremonies Connected Therewith.

The Hlambisa And The Doling Out Of Presents By The Bride.

Anointing The Bride.

Departure Of The Attendants Of The Bride.

Final Aggregation Of The Woman Into Her New Group.

Marriage Prohibitions.

Marriage Irregularities And Death Of One Party.





Chapter Vii Death And Burial


Taboos Observed By The Living.

Strengthening Medicines.

Other Observances After Death.


Ihlambo And End Of The General Mourning.

Final Aggregation Of Widows And Widowers.

The Ukuбuyisa Or Bringing Home Of The Spirit Of The Deceased.

Burial Of A King.

Cetshwayo's Burial.

Funeral Irregularities.

Chapter Viii Succession And Inheritance Of Property


House Property.

Kraal Property And Powers Of The Kraal Head.

Inter-house Relations.

Succession To Kraal Property.



Chapter Ix Economic Life Of The Zulus

Cattle—agriculture—hunting—industries—trade Transport.

Division Of Labour.

Economic Value Of Cattle.

Ritual Value Of Cattle.

Other Domestic Animals.



Crops Sown And Method Of Sowing And Weeding.

Garden Medicines.

Animal Enemies Of The Crops.


The Phukula And Unomdede.

Various Additional Nomkhuбulwana Ceremonies.

First-fruit Ceremonies.



Proclaiming A Hunt.

The Gathering Of The Hunters Before Setting Out.

Method Of Hunting And Rules Of The Chase.

Industries. 3

Weaving And Basketry.




Ivory And Bone.


Skin Dressing.


Internal Trade.

Foreign Trade.

Travelling And Transport.

Crossing Rivers.

Chapter X Political Organisation Of The Zulus, 1 Law And Justice

Untitled Section: ...

The Tribe.

Political Units Within The Tribe.

Powers Of The King.

The Councillors.

Revenue And Taxation.

Despotic Powers Wielded By Shaka And Dingane.

Law And Justice.

Some Characteristics Of Zulu Law.

Witchcraft, Its Discovery And Punishment.

Offences Dealt With By Zulu Courts Of Law.


Chapter Xi The King And His Functions

Untitled Section: ...

The King's Kraal.

Servants Of The King.

Daily Life Of The King.

Economic Position Of The King.

Fortifying The King For His Office.

The King As Tribal Medicine Man.

The King's Regalia.

The “vessel” Of The King.

The King And Vegetation.

General Characteristics Of First-fruit Ceremonies.

The Little Umkhosi.

Preparation Of Medicines.

The King Drives Out Evil By Squirting.

Squirting Medicine At The Sun.

Propitiation Of Ancestors.

The Great Umkhosi.

Gathering At The Chief's Kraal.

Preparation Of Medicines.

Fortification Of The King.

Spurting At The Sun.

The Uselwa.

Strengthening The Army.

White Medicine And The Ritual Bathe.

The Feasting.

Review Of The Army.

Dancing Competition And Invective Against The Chief.

Chapter Xii The Military Organisation Of The Zulus

Regiments And Their Dress.

The Ikhanda Or Military Kraal.

Life At The Ikhanda.

Preparing For War.

Strengthening The Army.

Sprinkling The Army.

On The March.


Treatment Of The Wounded And Those Who Had Killed An Enemy

Observances Of The Women In War-time.

Return Home.

Chapter Xiii Zulu Religion

Untitled Section: ...




The Amathongo And Ancestor Worship

Body And Soul.





The Sacrifice.

Preparations For Sacrifice.

General Procedure In Sacrifices.

Chapter Xiv Medicine And Magic

Untitled Section: ...

The Doctor.

The Herbalist.


Symptoms Of Possession By A Spirit.

“barring” The Spirit.

Initiation And Training.

Aggregation Feast.

Dress Of The Diviner.

Relation Between The Diviner And The Spirits.


Initiation Of The Heaven-herd.

How The Heaven-herd Retains His Power.

Rendering A Village Proof Against Lightning.

Warding Off A Storm.

Lightning Taboos.

Rain And The Rain-doctor.


How The Wizard Effects His Evil Purposes.

Familiars Of The Wizard.

Medicines And The Treatment Of Disease.

Classes Of Medicine.

Black And White Medicines.











Treatment Of Diseases.

Incisions, Cupping And Snuffing.

The Vapour Bath.

Barring Diseases.

Sympathetic Magic In The Treatment Of Disease.

Chapter Xv Music, Dancing And Song

Musical Instruments.

Songs And Praises.


Chapter Xvi Zulu Folklore

Uhlakanyana And Some Of His Exploits.

Dragons, Monsters And Amadlungandlebe.


Other Fabulous Animals.

Foreign Motifs In Zulu Folklore.

Common Themes In Zulu Folklore.

Stories Based On Historical Fact.

Explanatory Tales Of Origin.

Animal And Moral Tales.

Appendix I List Of Relationship Terms

Appendix Ii Physical Features, Dress And Ornamentation

Some Characteristics Of Zulu Dress.

Dress Of Young Children And Young People.

Dress Of Married Men And Women.


Artificial Disfigurements.

List Of Styles Of Dress In Use Among The Zulus.

Modes Of Hair-dress Among The Zulus.

List Of Ornaments In Use Among The Zulus.

Appendix Iii Amasi Abstentions

Amasi Taboos.

Appendix Iv Zulu Dishes


Fruits And Berries.

Appendix V Animal Taboos

Animal Taboos.

Other Taboos.

Appendix Vi Gifts Passing Between Bride And Bridegroom's Family In Connection With Marriage

Before The Wedding.

1. Umngenisandlini.

2. Ukudlakudla.

3. Imvuma.

4. Eyokumemeza.

5. Imvulamlomo.

6. Ingquthu, Umumba, 3 Unozungeza (the Beast Which Goes Round The Hut) Or Inkomo Yesi Fociya.

7. Imbuzi Yelongwe.

8. Inkomo Yenhloko.

9. Ncamisa.

10. Eyokucela Izinkomo.

11. Uswazi Or Ishoбa. 4

Endisa Cattle—taken By The Bride To The Bridegroom's Kraal.

12. Umбeka.

13. Udondolo.

14. Isikhumba, Isigodo.

15. Izimbuzi.

16. Isiboma, Umphoso.

Other Beasts Connected With The Wedding.

17. Isiwukula And Icoбantswani.

Izinkoбe, Imvulasango.

18. Umqholiso.

19. Umeke.

20. Uthuli.

21. Imbuzi Yokhezo.

22. Imbeleko.

23. Umthothongo.

24. Ukubaneka Izinkomo.

Appendix Vii Articles Of Basketry, Pottery, Wood, Iron, Bone And Hide And List Of Weapons Used


Skin Or Hide.

Other Articles.

Weapons Used By Zulus.


Appendix Viii

Appendix Ix Some Zulu Dances

Appendix X Conceptions Of The Universe







The Calendar And Months.

Untitled Section: ...

Cross References

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The social system of the Zulus

Published By: Original publisher Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter. 1965. xx, 420 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Eileen Jensen Krige

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2005. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Zulu (FX20)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF History (175); Diet (262); Recreational and non-therapeutic drugs (276); Inheritance (428); Music (533); Dance (535); Literature (538); Literary texts (539); Arranging a marriage (584); Nuptials (585); Kinship terminology (601); Community structure (621); Military organization (701); Magical and mental therapy (755); Burial practices and funerals (764); Magicians and diviners (791); Childbirth (844); Postnatal care (846); Puberty and initiation (881);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is '…a collection and scientific co-ordination of the information scattered about, or lying concealed in, numerous publications' (p. v) on the Zulu of KwaZulu-Natal. In addition to gathering information from published sources, the author corresponded with various individuals who were living and working in KwaZulu-Natal and made brief visits herself to KwaZulu-Natal. The source is a general ethnography covering the basic organizational and structural features of the Zulu. Given the research method, the time focus is, at best, ill-defined. The impression is that Krige was attempting to describe the 'traditional' Zulu, although there are occasional references to modern changes. The earliest source cited is 1836 and her correspondence and brief field trips were sometime around 1936, the publication date of the first edition.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fx20-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references Ingroup Antagonisms (578) and Revolution (669) were used for Chaka's consolidation of the Zulu

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document none

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnographer-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Marlene Martin ; 1979

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). ca. 1836-1936

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Zulu (African people)


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