Nimuendaju, Curt. The Eastern Timbira

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I. Geographical And Historical Introduction


Conquest And White Settlement

Classification Of Timbira Tribes: Timbira And Gê-cran

Tribal Names In Timbira Speech

Historical Survey Of The Several Timbira Tribes

1. The Timbira Of Araparytíua

2–3. The Kr˜eyé Of Bacabal; The Kukóekamekra

4. The Kr˜eyé Of Cajuapára

5. The Krĩkatí

6. The Pųkóbye

7. The Western Gaviões

8. The Kre'pų'mkateye

9. The Krahō'

10. The Põrekamekra

11–13. The Canella

14. The Čą'kamekra

15. Extinct Tribes

Ii. Ecology

Settlements And Houses

Dress And Adornment






Domestic Animals

Iii. Social Life

Social Units


Exogamous Moieties

The Individual And The Extended Family

Rainy Season Moieties 177

Plaza Groups And Moieties

Age Classes And Age Moieties

The Men's Societies 179

The Hąmrén

Formalized Friendship Bonds

1. The Hąpín-pinčwę'i Bond

2. Kwų'nõ'

Kinship Terms

The Life Cycle



The Newborn Infant

End Of Seclusion



Orphans; Treatment Of Children


The Boys' Class

Growing Girls

Social Relations Of The Sexes

Daily Dances



Sex Ideal

Prerequisites To Marriage

Defloration And Menstruation


Prohibited Unions

Sororate And Levirate

Matrilocal Residence; In-laws


Division Of Labor




Desire For Children

Old Age



War And Peace


Iv. Ceremonialism

Opening And Close Of Ceremonial Season

Opening And Close Of The Meipimrą'k Season

The Initiation Festivals




The Mummers' Festival



V. Religion And Magic

Earlier Sources

Celestial Bodies



Snake Shamans



Vi. Myths And Tales


Sun And Moon

Kačētikwę'i And Tųkti 278



Hąhą'k And The King Vulture 279

The Underworld

Tečware (sharpened-leg) 280

Kup˜etíayapré 281

Lagõa Formosa

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Eastern Timbira

Published By: Original publisher Berkeley and Los Angeles: Universtiy of California Press. 1946. x, 357 p., 42 plates ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Curt Nimuendaju ; translated and edited by Robert H. Lowie

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2012. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Canela (SO08)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Tribe and nation (619); Settlement patterns (361); Dwellings (342); Moieties (616); Age stratification (561); Puberty and initiation (881); Athletic sports (526); Rest days and holidays (527); External relations (648); Sodalities (575); Literary texts (539); Mythology (773);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The study is based upon detailed historical research on the Ge, and specifically the Timbira peoples, and considerable field investigation among the Timbira tribes as detailed herewith: Kreye, Apanyekra, Kreye of Cajuapara, Kukoekamekra, Krikati, Krepumkateye were visited or informants from these tribes were interviewed on visits. In these instances the author was principally concerned with securing a word list. These visits covered the period 1913-1930. Nimuendaju spent two months among the Kraho in 1930 and six months with the Timbira of Araprytua in 1914-15, but his main field research was among the Ramkokamekra with whom he stayed for a total of thirteen and one half months, distributed through the years: 1929, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1935, and 1936. The author gives a comprehensive and critical summary of the classifications of the Ge peoples in which his vast first-hand knowledge is decisive. Even more thorough is his account of the history of the Timbira and the component tribes. The bulk of the description of the contemporary Timbira refers to the Ramkokamekra (to which our field date exclusively refers), although relevant information on the other Timbira tribes is incorporated throughout. Most aspects of Timbira culture are treated by topics, but much additional information may be gleaned from the detailed descriptions of the major festivals. These latter are only superficially analyzed by the author who does not always clearly define the roles of the participant societies nor interrelate the different components of the social structure. The failure of Nimuendaju to interpret much of his data in no way impairs the excellent quality of the source which bristles with critical observations of a participant in the culture, which he grew to know intimately over a twenty-three year period. An excellent bibliography (pp. 251-258) and glossary (pp. 259-261) are appended.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. so08-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 251-258)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1928-1936

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Richard Schaedel ; 1955: John Beierle; 2011

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1928-1936

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) northeastern central steppes, Maranhão, Tocantins and eastern Pará, Brazil

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Timbira Indians


Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the links below to export the citation to your chosen bibliographic manager.

Export a Citation