Privratsky, Bruce G.. Muslim Turkistan: Kazak religion and collective memory

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter One The Problem Of Kazak Religion

The Historical Setting

Geography, Demography, And Political Culture

Kazakstan And Pan-turkism

Perspectives On Kazak Religion

Ethnic And Muslim Identities

Popular Islam: “great” And “little” Traditions?

Early Treatments Of Kazak Religion

Kazak Religion In Comparative Perspective

The Sufi Heritage In Kazak Religion

Shamanism And Valikhanov's Theory Of Kazak Religion

Collective Memory And Kazak Religion

Collective Memory And The Culture Concept

Four Parameters Of Collective Memory


Spirituality And Ethnographic Method

Textuality And Reality


Chapter Two Kiyeli Jer: Muslim Landscapes And Kazak Ethnicity

The Ethnic Demography Of Turkistan

Kazak Kinship Groups In Local Perspective

A Local Ethnic Symbiosis: Uzbek And Kazak

Kazak Ethnic Complexity

The Qojas

The Sunaqs

Diaspora Kazaks

Small Ethnic Minorities

The Russians

Two Kinds Of Jews

The Tatars

Meshket Turks From Georgia

New Turks From Turkey

Local History: Turkistan And Kazak Ethnogenesis

The Kazak Occupation

Waves Of Invasion: The Struggle For Kazak Ethnic Identity

Muslim Burial Grounds And Kazak Ethnic Identity

Horizons Of Mosque And Shrine

Reprise: Ethnicity On Sacred Ground

Yasawi And His Pilgrims

Ahmet Yasawi In Sacred Narrative

Reprise: The Architecture Of Collective Memory

Muslim Values And Kazak Ethnic Markers

Emigration And Ethnicity

Mother Tongue And Ethnicity

Genealogy And Ethnicity

Intermarriage And Ethnicity

Circumcision And Ethnicity

Apostasy And Ethnicity

Reprise: Ethnic Identity And Sacred Space



Chapter Three Taza Jol: The Pure Way Of Islam Among The Kazaks

The Pure Way And Its Variability

The Names Of God And The Kazak Idea Of Islam

The Daily Experience Of Purity And Impurity

Upholding The Five Pillars Of Islam

Namaz Oqū: Reciting The Daily Prayers

Oraza Tutū: Keeping The Fast

Zeket Berū: Annual Giving

Qajιġa Barū: Going On The Pilgrimage

Īman Keltirū: Confessing The Faith

Reprise: The Five Pillars In Old Age

Observing The Islamic Rites Of Passage

Azan Shaqιrū: Childhood Rites

Sündet Kestirū: Circumcising A Boy

Neke Qιya R: The Marriage Ceremony

Janaza Shιġarū: The Burial Of The Dead

Sälem Qιlū: The Daily Greeting

Reprise: Two Shariahs?

The Qojas: Guardians Of The Taza Jol

Memories Of The Sufi Tradition

Memories Of The Sufi As Muezzin ( Azanshι )

Memories Of The Sufi Dhikr (zikir)

Revisions Of Zikir



Chapter Four Aruaq: Remembering The Ancestors

Kinship, Lineage, And The Ancestor-spirits

Three Meanings Of Ancestor

Personal Names, Patronymics, And Family Names

Reprise: A Disjunction

Dreams Of The Ancestors

The Appearance Of The Ancestor-spirits

Thursday Dreams

Comparative Perspectives

The Quran Recital And Blessing

The Blessing

Reprise: Recital And Dedication

The Thursday Rite Of Quran And Oil

A Thursday Meal In A Kazak Home

Intentions Of The Thursday Rite

Kazak Hospitality And The Ancestor-spirits

The Ancestor-spirits And The Problem Of Sacrifice

Spiritual Sanctions In The Ancestor Cult

Comparative Perspectives

Kazak Ancestor Veneration?

Reprise: A Muslim Ancestor Cult

The Funeral Cycle And Memorial Feast

A Funerary Meal

Qatιm Quran

Kazak Ancestors And The Persistence Of Religion

Kazak And Mongolian Ancestor-spirits

Reprise: Syncretism And Anti-syncretism In Ancestor Cults



Chapter Five Auliye: Remembering The Saints

The Way Of The Muslim Saints

The Saint's Gift

Dreams And Illumination

Mediation And Association

Reprise: Bridging The Gaps

The Shrine Center And Its Periphery

The Shrines Of Turkistan

The Pilgrimage Circuit

Pilgrimage Scenes At The Yasawi Shrine

The Semantic Field Of Pilgrimage

The Ritual Movements Of Pilgrimage

At Home

At The Shrine


Dynamics Of Pilgrimage

Motivations Of Pilgrimage

Emotions Of Pilgrimage

Pilgrimage And The Purity Complex

Pilgrimage And Sacrifice

Varieties Of Pilgrimage: Mecca And Turkistan

Reprise: The Ziyarat Pattern And Local Variation

Living Saints: New Age Religion In Kazakstan

Two New Age Saints

The Influence Of Russian Parapsychology

Kazak Evaluations Of The New Saints

Reprise: Commercializing Sainthood

The Ayan Complex: A Symbiosis Of Ancestors And Saints



Chapter Six Emshi: The Kazak Healer

Qoja And Mullah: The Muslim Way Of Healing

Healing Perspectives Of The Qojas

Hanging Amulets And Sacred Plants

Reprise: Lineage And Method

Three Täw˙ips: Women As Healers

Botajan, The Model Healer

The Täwip's Spiritual “pressure”

Diagnosis By Pulse-taking

Treatment By Exorcism

Therapeutic Paraphernalia

Uljalġas, The Muslim Eclectic

Learning Healing By Stages

Diagnosis And Treatment

Zulfiya, The “spitter”

Reprise: Healing As Practical Religion

Palshi: The Fortune-tellers

Illness And Other Objects Of Divination

The Problem Of Divination In Islam

Women And Divination

Fortunes Without Malice

Reprise: Uncertain Outcomes

Baqsi: The Kazak Shaman

Fatima And The Shaman Of Qazalι

Aybibi And The Flying Shamans

Qoja And Shaman?

Shamans Of Turkistan?

Qalambay, The Dissembler

Botajan, The Aspiring Shaman

The Gathering Of “shamans” At Arstan Bab

Reprise: Memories Of The Kazak Shaman

Semantic Problems In The Healing Tradition

Zikir: Sufic And Shamanic Contexts

Kiye: A Sacred Essence

Qιsιlū: The Shaman's Sickness

Today's Emshi — Yesterday's Shaman



Chapter Seven Kazak Religion And Collective Memory

The Kazaks And Their Religion

The Persistence Of Kazak Religion

Regional, Generational, And Gender Variation

Locally Normative Popular Islam

Muslim Therapies

Muslim Travels

Muslim Ancestors

Muslim Duties And Surrogacy Patterns

The Familiar Way Of “muslimness”

Reprise: Uncovering Kazak Religion

Collective Memory Reconstructed

Collective Memory In Kazak Religion

Collective Memory And Geographic Symbols

Collective Memory And The Religious Affections

The Problem Of “group Mind”


Chapter Eight Religion As Culture And Spirit

The Construction And Reality Of Religion

Challenges To Postmodernist Epistemology

Historical Criticism And The Construction Of Religious History

The Integrity Of The Religious Life

Instrumental Religion And Spiritual Life

Memory And The Signs Of Faith

Religion And Science

Religion And Transcendence

Critical Realism And Spirit

Kazak Religion In Critical-realist Perspective

Theology And Science Study Religion

Kazak Religion And The Ethnographic Experience

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Muslim Turkistan: Kazak religion and collective memory

Published By: Original publisher Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. 2001. xxi, 321 p. [4] p. of plates : ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Bruce G. Privratsky

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Kazakh (RQ02)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF General character of religion (771); Religious experience (781); Prayers and sacrifices (782); Religious denominations (795); Traditional history (173); Mythology (773); Prophets and ascetics (792); Revelation and divination (787); Magic (789); Shamans and psychotherapists (756); Sacred objects and places (778); Religious denominations (795); Religious intolerance and martyrs (798); External relations (648); Avoidance and taboo (784); Cult of the dead (769); Congregations (794); Religious and educational structures (346); Cultural identity and pride (186);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The Kazak are a Muslim people in Central Asia among whom religious belief and behavior are mediated by a verbatim memory of their nomadic ancestors and the Sufi saints who nurtured them in the way of Islam. This book seeks to interpret Kazak religion based on people's actual experiences. The focus is on spirituality and Muslim life among the Kazaks in the small city of Turkistan in Southern Kazakhstan, which has been the center of Kazak religious life (associated with the Sufi legacy) and cultural identity. Framing the discussion on anthropological theories of religion, the author concludes by identifying salient features of Kazak religious life.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 20

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. rq02-020

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 275-298) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1991-1999

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Anthropologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Teferi Abate Adem; 2010

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1864-2001

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Turkestan (city), South Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Islam--Kazakhstan--Turkistan--20th century//Sufism--Kazakhstan--Turkistan--20th century//Kazakhs--Religious life//Islam. gtt//Turkistan (Kazakhstan)--Religion--20th century//Kazakhstan--Turkistan--Religion--20th century


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