Metge, Joan, 1930-. New growth from old: the Whanau in the modern world

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1 The Flax Bush: Family And Whānau

Whānau, Family And Household

Māori And Te Iwi Māori

Non-māori, Pākehā, European

Ngā Tikanga Māori

A Changing World

Māori Initiatives

In Search Of Understanding

New Growth From Old

Ngā Kai-whakaatu


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Chapter 2 Views From Anthropology

Modelling The ‘classic’ Whānau

Describing The Whānau In The 1950s And 1960s

Whānau And Hapū

Developing Understandings

Anthropological Terms And Their Use


Chapter 3 The Many Meanings Of Whānau

Meanings Inherited From The Ancestors

Developing New Meanings

Shifting Between Meanings


Chapter 4 The Whānau Which Comes First To Mind

Whānau Membership

Group Symbols

The Functions Of The Whānau


The Whānau, Time And Change

Whānau In The Wider Context


Chapter 5 Whānau Values



Taha Wairua, Taha Tinana

Tapu And Noa


Tika, Tikanga, Pono


Mana Tupuna


Mana Tāne, Mana Wahine

The Relation Between Aroha And Mana




Relations With Outsiders

Negative Values


Chapter 6 Structural Tensions In The Whānau

Tensions In The Sibling Set

Tensions Between Descendants And Non-descendants

Tensions Between Husband And Wife

Burying Placenta And Umbilical Cord

Going Home At Death

Affiliation Choices


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Chapter 7 The Hamiora Whānau 1955–85

The Samuels ‘family’ In 1955

The Hamiora Whānau In 1985

The Hamiora Whānau Hui

The ‘founder’ Of The Hamiora Whānau

Conclusion: The Hamiora Whānau As Process

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Chapter 8 Sharing The Caring

Children And Young Persons

Words For Relatives

The Māori Pattern Of Child-raising

Underlying Principles


Primary Care-givers

Sharing The Caring

Caring At Hui

Filling The Gap



Chapter 9 Parenting: Emphases And Avoidances

A Division Of Labour?

Parents: Emphases And Avoidances

Avoidance Of Praise

Avoidance Of Discussion

Avoidance Of Talk About Sex


Chapter 10 Grannies, Aunts And Uncles

Relations With Tūpuna

Love And Support

Gentle Correction

Mutual Caring

Building Up Self-esteem

Kōrero: Talking And Teaching

Teaching Tikanga

Source Of Identity

Sources Of Power And Influence

Exceptions To The Rule

Aunts And Uncles

Special Bonds

Aunts And Uncles As Teachers


Coda Whakatupu Tamariki

The Traditional Pattern

Urban Adaptation In The 1960s

Child-raising In The 1990s


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Chapter 11 Atawhai Adoption: ‘born Of My Heart’

Atawhai, Adoption And Fostering

Māori Attitudes To Atawhai Adoption

Atawhai: Kin And Non-kin

The Duration Of Atawhai Relationships

Reasons For Atawhai Relationships

When Birth Mothers Are Single

When Birth Parents Are Married

Māori Cultural Purposes

Chapter 12 Atawhai Adoption: Process And Consequences

The Process Of Establishing Atawhai Relations

The Role Of The Kaumātua

Openness Not Secrecy

Community Attitudes

Two Sets Of Parents

Accessibility And Separation

Adjusting Kinship Terms And Behaviour


Māori Attitudes To Legal Adoption

Coda Tamariki Atawhai

Changing Circumstances


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Chapter 13 Dealing With Problems

Crises In Child-care

Child Offending

Family Disagreements

Physical Abuse

Sexual Misdemeanours And Abuse

Drawing The Threads Together

The Tikanga Of The Marae And Whānau Huihuinga

Hui Whakawā

Strategies And Roles Of Prevention And Healing

Conclusion: Dealing With Problems In The 1990s

Chapter 14 Flowering And New Growth

Continuity And Change

The Whānau Which Comes First To Mind

Non-traditional Whānau

Different Kinds Of Whānau

The Whānau As Remedy And Resource

Whakapapa-based Whānau

Whakapapa-based Whānau And The State

New Growth From Old

Kaupapa-based Whānau

Non-māori And The Whānau

Appreciation Without Appropriation


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: New growth from old: the Whanau in the modern world

Published By: Original publisher Wellington, N.Z.: Victoria University Press. 1995. 342 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Joan Metge ; illustrated by Toi Te Rito Maihi

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2009. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Maori (OZ04)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Extended families (596); Rule of descent (611); Sociocultural trends (178); General character of religion (771); Ethos (181); Child care (855); Adoption (597); Sex and marital offenses (684); Public lectures (544);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is a study of the Maori whānau, which in it basic verbal form means 'to be born'. In actual use, however, its original reference was to a set of siblings born of the same parents, but like family in English it has acquired a range of other meanings distinguished by context. The most important of these is a large family group comprising several generations and parent-child families related by descent from a recent ancestor (p. 16). The concept of 'the whānau' in this sense has remained important to the Maori people from pre-European times to the present, and it is this concept which forms the basis of this work. In this monograph Metge surveys the range of meanings given to the word whānau and then builds a generalized model or picture of the primary referent within this range, a model broad enough to encompass the major variations which have developed over the last forty years in urban as well as rural areas. The author examines the dynamic development of a typical whānau between 1955 and 1985, and then two particular aspects of child-rearing dealing with sharing the caring and adoption, and concludes her study with methods of dealing with problems within the whānau.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 11

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. oz04-011

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 326-331) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1953-1959, 1981-1983

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle; 2007

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1940-1991

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) New Zealand, Oceania

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Maori (New Zealand people)--Kinship//Maori (New Zealand people)--Social conditions// Family--New Zealand//Kinship--New Zealand//New Zealand--Social life and customs


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