Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.
Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records
Ito, Karen L. (Karen Lee), 1947-
Lady friends: Hawaiian ways and the ties that define
Published By: Original publisher
Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1999. xi, 175 p.
By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication
Karen L. Ito
HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.:
Human Relations Area Files, 2003. Computer File
Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis.
Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF
Gift giving (431);
Ingroup antagonisms (578);
Informal in-group justice (627);
Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document
This is a study of six urban Hawaiian households. Ito
interacted with household members, extended families, and friends; but focused on the
mothers, who according to her, are the mainstays of the family. An important set of
familial traditions is associated with interpersonal conflict. Disputes and their
resolution are invoked by the metaphors 'entanglements' (HIHIA), 'loosening' (KALA),
'cutting' ('OKI), and 'to make right' (HO'OPONOPONO). Negative emotions, such as coldness,
unkindness, jealousy, stinginess, and insincerity entangle and bind. They block the smooth
functioning of social interactions on which reciprocity and community are based.
Path-clearing ceremonies and clearing-the-way prayers are practiced to restore the set of
positive emotions associated with the word ALOHA: love, generosity, affection, hospitality,
empathy, and warmth. Ito argues that even though urban families are alienated from the land
they are able to maintain their identity by practicing the above traditions.
Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents
Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.
Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs.
Language: Language that the document is written in
Includes bibliographical references (p. 155-171) and
Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document
Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data
Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection.
Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date).
Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)
Kalihi, Honolulu, Hawaii, United
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings