Pospisil, Leopold J.. Kapauku Papuan economy

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part 1: Introductory Statement

General Orientation Of The Monograph

Orientation Of The Research Fig. 1. The Western Part Of Netherlands New Guinea.

The Field Situation And Techniques Of Gathering Data

Entry Into The Kamu Valley

The Method

Initial Inquiry

Research In The Nonbehavioral Part Of Culture

Research In Behavioral Culture

Part Ii: Botukebo Village As A Segment Of Kapauku Socio-political Structure


Social Structure

Social Categories

Social Quasi-groups

Societal Structure

Traditional Unilineal Kinship Groups

Localized Unilineal Kinship Groups

Corporate Non-unilineal Kinship Groups

Residential Groups

Economic Groups

Political Groups

Summary Of The Social Organization

Political Structure

General Statement


Multiplicity Of Legal Systems

Interconfederational Politics

Part Iii: Botukebo

The Village And The History Of Its Residents

Location Of The Village

A Brief Historical Sketch


Composition Of Population Of Botukebo

Identification Of The Residents

Residence And The Sublineage Affiliation

Marriages Of The Botukebo People

Fertility Of The Botukebo Females

Introductory Statement

Various Rates And Ratios Pertaining To Human Fertility

Residence Pattern Of Botukebo

Residence And Domicile

Residence Of The Married Male

Residence Of The Married Female

Residence Of Old People, Widowers, And Widows


Households Of Botukebo

Composition Of The Sixteen Botukebo Households

The Household Types And Their Segments

Dynamic Aspect Of The Households And Their Segments

Part Iv: Agriculture


Natural Environment

Edaphic Environment

Topography And Geology



Biotic Environment

Plant Cultivation


Selection Of Site

General Statement

Type Of Terrain And Soil


Type Of Vegetation

Fallowing Stage

Type Of Crop

Distance From Settlement

Proximity To Other Gardens

Title To The Land

Extensive Cultivation Method—a Shifting Cultivation On Mountain Slopes

General Statement

Individual Stages Of The Shifting Cultivation

Intensive Cultivation Method—cultivation On The Floor Of The Kamu Valley

General Statement

Intensive Shifting Cultivation In The Valley Fields

Bedamai, Intensive Complex Cultivation Of The Valley Gardens


Tree Cultivation

Land Tenure

Land Tenure And Social Groupings

Economic Rights Of The Kapauku To Land

Land Ownership

Ownership Rights To Various Types Of Land And Their Limitations By Group Interest

Acquisition Of Economic Title To Land

Private Economic Rights Limiting Individual Ownership Of Land

Political Rights To Land

The Economics Of Agriculture Of Botukebo


Organization Of Labor

Working Habits Of The Kapauku

Division Of Agricultural Labor

Management Of Individual’s Land

Household Cooperation

Hired Labor

Taboos Restricting Agricultural Work

Time Aspect Of Agriculture

Gardens And Crops Of Botukebo People

General Statement

Totals For Types Of Gardens, Individual Crops, And Agricultural Techniques

Average Size And Variability Of Plots

Relation Of The Cultivated Area To The Population Of Botukebo

The Botukebo Landowners And Their Gardens

Relationship Between Areas Cultivated And Certain Socio-economic Factors

Introductory Statement

Garden Areas And Social Groups

Garden Areas And Composition Of The Households

Garden Areas And The Wealth Of The Cultivators

The Economic Role Of The Title To The Land

Introductory Statement

Title To Land And Selection Of Crops

Title And Quality Of Cultivation

Title And Juxtaposition Of Gardens

Title And Geographic Location Of Gardens

Yields Of Botukebo Gardens

A Summary Of Yields Of Some Botukebo Crops

Adequacy Of The Total Root Crop Production


Part V: Animal Husbandry

General Statement

The Pig


Pig Breeding

Pig Tenure

The Right Of Ownership

Acquisition Of The Right Of Ownership

Pig-breeding Contract

The Economics Of Pig Husbandry

Pig Breeding And Personal Wealth

Pig Breeding In Botukebo

The Chicken

Breeding Chickens

Chicken Tenure

The Economics Of Chicken Husbandry

Part Vi: Fishing, Hunting, And Gathering


Importance Of Fishing

Fishing Techniques

The Woman’s Work

The Man’s Work

Fishing Rights

Fishing In Botukebo

Hunting And Trapping

Importance Of Hunting

Apparatus, Techniques, And Organization Of Game Acquisition



Hunting And Trapping Regulations

Hunting And Trapping Rights

Regulations Pertaining To The Allocation Of Game

Hunting By The Botukebo Residents


Importance Of Gathering

Gathering Techniques And Organization

Gathering Of Insects

Gathering Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Bird Eggs

Gathering Of Plants

Gathering Rights

Gathering By The Botukebo Residents

Part Vii: Construction And Manufacture

Introductory Statement

Kapauku Technology



Other Kinds Of Construction

Manufacture Of Artifacts


Stone Implements

Bamboo, Reed, And Wooden Artifacts

Gourd And Seed Artifacts

Artifacts Of Teeth, Claws, And Bone

Beak And Feather Utilization

Shell Artifacts

Basketry And Mats

Tenure Of Manufactured Objects

Ownership Of Structures And Movables

Rights And Duties Of The Owners

Acquisition Of Ownership

Rights Limiting Ownership To Movables And Structures

Loan And Rent Of Structures And Movables

Some Economic Aspects Of Manufacture

Division Of Labor

Popularity Of The Various Types Of Manufacture

Part Viii: Distribution

General Statement

Kapauku Money Economy

Importance Of Kapauku Money

Types Of Kapauku Money

The Pig As A Medium Of Exchange

The Purchasing Power Of Money And The Price-making Process

Types Of Kapauku Prices

The Price-making Process

Long-range Changes In The Value Of Goods And Money

Savings And Investment


Introductory Statement

Sales Of The Residents Of Botukebo

Sales Of Real Property

Sales Of Movable Property

Balance Of Sales For The Eight-months Period

Quasi-sales Of The Residents Of Botukebo

Buying A Wife

Sale Of Services

Markets And Trade

Market Places

Juwo, The Pig Feast

Tapa, The Money-collecting Ceremony

Dedomai, The Pig Market

The Traders And Types Of Trade

General Statement

Intraregional Trade

Interregional Trade

Intertribal Trade

Non-sale Types Of Distribution

General Statement


Importance Of Barter In The Kapauku Economy

Customary Types Of Barter Exchange

Barter Of The Residents Of Botukebo

Concluding Statement


Nature Of Gifts

Various Types Of Gifts

Gift To A Best Friend

Lease, Loans, And Credit


Loans Of Movables


Inheritance And Forceful Seizure Of Property


Forcible Seizure Of Property

Part Ix: Consumption

Introductory Statement

Food Consumption

Regulation And Attitudes Pertaining To Eating

Eating Regulations And Practices

Arbitrary Restrictions On Eating

Attitudes Toward Food

Plant Consumption

Consumption Of Fresh Plants

Roasting Tubers And Fruit

Consumption Of Greens

Animal Consumption

Consumption Of Pork

Consumption Of Other Vertebrates

Consumption Of Invertebrates

Problem Of Nutrition In Botukebo

Extremes In Shortages Or Abundance Of Food

The Nutritional Problem In The New Guinea Highlands

Total Consumption Of The People Of Botukebo

Consumption Of Manufactured Goods

Summary Of Consumption Of Botukebo Residents

Part X: The “primitive” Kapauku Economy

Wealth And Status In The Kapauku Society

Unequal Distribution Of Wealth

Financial Status Of The Botukebo Residents

Total Economic Status Of The Botukebo Residents

Creation Of Wealth Among The Kapauku

The “magical Cycle” In Production

The Personal Factor

The Uncontrollable Factor Called “economic Luck”

Economic Mobility

Function Of Wealth

Economy Of Botukebo In The Year 1955

Primitiveness And The Kapauku Economy

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Kapauku Papuan economy

Published By: Original publisher New Haven, Conn.: Dept. of Anthropology, Yale University. 1963. 502 p., plates ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Leopold Pospisil

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1998. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Kapauku (OJ29)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Domesticated animals (231); Tillage (241); Real property (423); Buying and selling (432); Production and supply (433); Accumulation of wealth (556);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This monograph presents a structural-functionl quantitative analysis of Kapauku economy based on the author's investigation of the sublineage of Ijaaj-Enona, the members of which live in one large community called Botukebo, located in West Irian. The data gathered from this study are then compared to other Kapauku groups studied by the author to give a general picture of the whole economy. In all, the author spent eighteen months in the field, with eight of these being spent in the study of Botukebo. This book presents information on the author's methodology, an analysis of Botukebo social structure, a demographic and residential picture of the community of Botukebo, an elaborate description of agricultural techniques, principles of land tenure and the organization of labor, details of animal husbandry (with emphasis on the raising of pigs), and on fishing, hunting, gathering and the manufacture of various artifacts. An additional section of interest concerned with distribution examines the use of shell money and procedures of gift, barter, sale, credit operations and the inheritance of property. After a section on consumption, the study concludes with an analysis of Kapauku economic wealth and a comprehensive summary of the main characteristics of the Kapauku economy. The author, a professional anthropologist, whose primary interest lies in the field of 'primitive' law, was financed in his field work by grants from the Ford Foundation (research period 1954-1955), the American Philisophical Society and the Social Science Research Council (for the research period of 1959).

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 5

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. oj29-005

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 406-409.) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1954-1955, 1959

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1965-1968

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1954-1959

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Kamu Valley, central Highlands, Irian Jaya, Indonesia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Kapauku (New Guinea people)


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