Nooy-Palm, Hetty. The Sa'dan-Toraja: a study of their social life and religion

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter I The Sa’dan-toraja And Their Environment 1

I.1 Introduction

I.2 The Land

I.3 Present-day Administration

I.4 The Name Sa’dan-toraja; Differentiation From Neighbouring Ethnicities

I.5 Toraja History, A Résumé

1.6 Economics

1.7 A Critical Appraisal Of Available Literature About The Sa’dan-toraja

Annex Ia

Annex Ib

Chapter Ii Kinship Structure

Ii.1 Descent Groups

Ii.1.1 Ancestor-focus

Ii.1.2 Status Ramages

Ii.2 Ego-focus: The Kindred 20

Ii.3 Affinal Kin (rampean)

Ii.4 Kinship Terminology

Ii.4.1 Consanguines

A. Siblings And Cousins

B. Aunts, Uncles, Nephews And Nieces

C. Grandparents; Grandchildren

Ii.4.2 Affines

Ii.5 Marriage

Ii.5.1. Forms Of Marriage; Marriage Prescriptions And Restrictions

Ii.5.2 The Kapa’

Ii.5.3 Children In The Adat-system

Ii.6 Summary

Annex Iia

Chapter Iii The Classes

Iii.1 Class Division In Kesu’

Iii.1.1 Kesu’

Iii.1.2 Nonongan

Iii.1.3 Titles And Duties

Iii.2 Classes In Sangalla’

Iii.3 Summary

Chapter Iv Traditional Socio-political Organization

Iv.1 Traditional Political Units

Iv.1.1 Adat-communities

Iv.1.2 The Bua’- Or Penanian-communities

Iv.1.3 Patang Penanian; Other Penanian-leagues

Iv.1.4 The Lembang

Iv.1.5 Buntao’, An Autonomous Patang Penanian

Iv.1.6 The Federation Of Kesu’ (map 3)

Iv.1.7 The Princedom Of Sangalla’, One Of The Tallulembangna

Iv.1.8 Ma’kale And Mengkendek

Iv.2 The Village: Functions

Iv.2.1 Introduction

Iv.2.2. Kinship In The Settlement

Iv.2.3 Local Divisions In Connection With The Offices Which Village Residents Hold

Iv.2.4 Summary

Chapter V Prominent Characteristics Of Sa’dan-toraja Religion

V.1 Introduction

V.2 Principles Of Classification In Sa’dan-toraja Cosmology

V.3 The Gods

V.4 Souls, Ancestors, And Spirits

V.4.1 Souls (bombo) 75

V.4.2 Ancestors

V.4.3 Spirits (localized)

V.4.4 Dangerous Spirits And Dangerous People

V.5 The Concepts Of Spirit And Soul; Conclusion

Annex Va

Annex Vb

Chapter Vi Mythology

Vi.1 Myths About The Creation Of The Universe And The Institution Of Rituals

Vi.1.1 Kesu’: Passomba Tedong, The Consecration Of The Buffalo

Vi.1.2a The Creation Myth As Handed Down In Riu (lembang Suloara, Kecamatan Sesean)

Vi.1.2b The Creation Myth From Tikala, Lembang Suloara’

Vi.2 Myths Telling About The Arrival Of The Ancestors On Earth And The Adventures Of Their Descendants

Vi.2.1 The To Manurun In The Puang-regions: Tamborolangi’ And Lakipadada

A. Tamborolangi’

B. The Adventures Of Lakipadada As Told By Puang Willem Popang Sombolinggi’ (sangalla’ 1969)

Vi.2.2 The To Manurun In Kesu’

Vi.2.2a Manaek And Polopadang (told By Bua’ Sarungallo) 106

Vi.2.2b Polopadang And Deatanna (told By B. Sarungallo)

Vi.2.3 The To Manurun In Riu

Vi.2.4 The Arrival Of The Ancestors From The Island Of Pongko’

Vi.3 Myths Concerning The Consequences Of Incest

Vi.4 Miscellaneous Myths

Vi.4.1 Ulelean; Introduction

Vi.4.2 Tales Of Thievery And The Underworld 116

Vi.4.2a The Tale Of Pong Sumbung Sare Pio (‘he Who Wears A Loin Cloth Of Stitched-together Rags’)

Vi.4.2b The Myth Of Marampio Padang

Vi.4.3 Tulangdidi’ And Bulu Pala’

Vi.4.3a Tulangdidi’

Vi.4.3b Bulu Pala’

Vi.4.4 Till Eulenspiegel Tales

Vi.4.5a The Myth Of Pano Bulaan

Vi.4.5b Rangga Bulaan 127

Chapter Vii Animals And Plants In Ritual And Myth

Vii.1 White And Pied Buffaloes

Vii.1.1 Colour, Markings And Other Characteristics

Vii.1.2 The Family Tree Of The Kerbau

Vii.1.3 The Kerbau In Art And In Ritual

Vii.1.4 The Buffalo As A Symbol Of The Ramage’s Power And Wealth

Vii.1.5 The Division Of The Meat

Vii.1.6 Pemanala; The Parts Of The Pesung

Vii.2 The Pig

Vii.2.1 Division Of The Meat After The Sacrifice Of A Pig In Kesu’; Informant Bua’ Sarungallo

Vii.3 The Chicken

Vii.4 Other Birds

Vii.5 The Dog

Vii.6 The Cat

Vii.6.1 Beliefs And Categories

Vii.6.2 Prohibitions And Customs

Vii.7 The Snake And The Eel

Vii.8 The Tree Of Life

Vii.9 The Bate Manurun, The ‘flag’ Which Came Down From Heaven 159

Vii.10 Rice

Vii.11 Millet

Vii.12 Maize

Vii.13 The Tabang (cordyline Terminalis): Bloodwort

Vii.14 Langsat (langsa’, Lansium Domesticum)

Vii.15 Induk (sugar Palm, Arenga Saccharifera)

Vii.16 The Banana

Vii.17 Ipo

Vii.18 Bilante (homolanthus Populneus)

Vii.19 Suke Bombo

Vii.20 Cotton And Other Plants

Chapter Viii Material Symbols

Viii.1 The Tongkonan

Viii.1.1 General Description Of The Tongkonan; Function

Viii.1.2 The Internal Layout Of A Tongkonan (see Fig. Viii.1)

Viii.1.3 Woodcarving; Special Motifs

Viii.1.4 The A’riri Posi’

Viii.1.5 The Ampang Bilik Or Ruma-ruma

Viii.1.6 The Tongkonan As A Cosmic Symbol

Viii.1.7 The House In History And Myth; And The Ritual Of Its Construction

Viii.2 The Ricebarn

Viii.3 Other Symbols: Kandaure, Swords, Krisses, Sacral Textiles And Drums

Viii.3.1 Kandaure

Viii.3.2 Swords

Viii.3.3 Krisses And Other Weapons

Viii.3.4 Sacral Cloths

Viii.3.5 Drums

Viii.4 The Grave, ‘the House From Which No Smoke Rises’

Viii.5 The Tau-tau (effigies)

Viii.5.1 Manufacture Of A Tau-tau

Viii.5.2 Function Of The Tau-tau

Viii.6 Megaliths

Viii.6.1 Description

Viii.6.2 The Raising Of A Monolith

Viii.6.2a Mangriu’ Batu, The Hauling Of A Monolith In Kesu’

Viii.6.2b In Sangalla’

Viii.6.3 Other Stones

Viii.7 Sacrificial Shrines

Viii.7.1 Substitutes For The Celestial Ladder

Viii.7.2 Other Shrines And Receptacles

Chapter Ix Priests

Ix.1 The To Minaa

Ix.2 The To Menani

Ix.3 The To Indo’ Padang

Ix.4 The To Mebalun

Ix.5 The To Burake: The To Burake Tattiku’ And The To Burake Tambolang

Ix.6 The To Ma’dampi

Ix.7 The Burake And The Priests Of Neighbouring Peoples; Summary


Chapter I

Chapter Ii

Chapter Iii

Chapter Iv

Chapter V

Chapter Vi

Chapter Vii

Chapter Viii

Chapter Ix

A Glossary And Index Of The Most Frequently Used Toraja And Indonesian Terms And Names


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Chapter I Division And Characterization

Chapter Ii The Great Bua’-feast

1. Introduction

2. The Sequence Of Events In Pangala’ District 6

3. The La’pa’ Kasalle As Celebrated In Kesu’

4. The Great Bua’-feast In Riu On The Slopes Of Sesean

5. The “big Day” And The Days After In The Bua’-feast In Batu Kamban, Riu (october 24-27, 1970)

Chapter Iii The Merok-feast

1. Reasons For Holding The Feast (kesu’ And Buntao’)

2. Persons With A Role In The Merok-feast

3. Clothing And Regalia Worn By Functionaries During The Merok-feast

4. Rice In The Merok-feast

5. Sacrificial Animals In The Merok-feast

6. Buildings, Animals And Plants In The Merok-feast

7. The Rites Of The Merok-feast In Kesu’

8. The Rites Of The Merok-feast In Buntao’

9. Ma’ta’da And Matanna (allona) In The Village Of Kadinge’ (1969)

Chapter Iv The Rice Ritual

1. Priests And Functionaries

2. Rice Cultivation

2.1. Varieties Of Rice

2.2. Sawahs

2.3. Tools

2.4. Agricultural Tasks

3. The Rice Ritual In Kesu’

4. The Rice, The Datu And The Deata

5. The Bua’ Padang

6. Menammu Pare In The Village Of Ke’te, Kesu’ (july 1983)

Chapter V Rituals Of The East Related To Man’s Life Cycle

1. Introduction 103

2. Suru’na Mellolo Tau, Rituals Having To Do With Birth And The Period Immediately After

2.1. Pregnancy And Birth

2.2. Twins

2.3. Name-giving And First Hair-cut

3. Practices Which Concern Adolescents

4. The Marriage Ritual (suru’na Rampanan Kapa’)

4.1. Introduction

4.2. The Marriage Ceremony (sangalla’)

5. The Death Ritual Of The To Burake, To Minaa Sando, And The To Menani; Three Priests Who Participate In The Great Bua’-feast

Chapter Vi Rituals Of Exorcism: Maro And Bugi’

1. Introduction

2. Maro

2.1. Name And Goal Of The Ritual

2.2 The Maro-ritual For The Sick

2.3. Descriptions Of The Maro-rites

2.4. The Maro-ritual To Cure The Sick As It Originated In The Upperworld

2.5. Characteristics Of The Maro-ritual

2.6. Maro-songs

2.7. The Maro As Conversion Ritual During A Burial

2.8. Bate Umpabalik Bandera To Mate, Held In Sereale Village

2.9. Epilogue

3. Bugi’

3.1. The Goal Of The Bugi’-ritual

3.2. The Term Bugi’

3.3. Differences And Similarities With The Maro-feast

3.4. Diverse Forms Of The Bugi’

3.5. The Deata Sojourn On Earth: Ma’bugi’ Padang

Chapter Vii Conversion Rituals

1. Introduction

2. Different Orders Of Conversion Rituals

2.1. Babo Bo’bo’, The Conversion Ritual After The Dikaletekan Tallu Manuk

2.2. Piong Sanglampa And Pesung Sangdaun, The Conversion Ritual After The Disilli’

2.3. Manglika’ Biang, The Intertwining Of The Biang-reed, The Conversion Ritual After The Didedekan Pangkung Bai And The Bai Tungga’

2.4. Ma’tadoran Manuk, The Conversion Ritual After The Bai A’pa’

2.5. Ma’tadoran Bai, The Conversion Ritual After The Sangbongi

2.6. Ma’palangngan Para, The Conversion Ritual After The Tallung Bongi

2.7. Manganta’, The Conversion Ritual After Several Higher Rituals

2.7.1. Celebration Of The Manganta’-ritual In Tonga, Kesu’ (october 17, 1966)

2.8. Mangrara Pare, A Conversion Ritual After The Highest Death Rituals

2.8.1. The Prayer Pronounced During The Mangrara Pare

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Chapter Viii Death Rituals: Introduction And General Review

1. Introduction

2. General Review

Chapter Ix Simple Death Rituals

1. Rituals For Children And Poor People

1.1. Dikaletekan Tallu Manuk

1.2. Disilli’ 153

1.3. Didedekan Pangkung Bai

1.4. Bai Tungga’

1.5. Bai A’pa’

2. Rituals At Which At Least One Buffalo Is Slaughtered

2.1. The Sangbongi Or Dipasang Bongi

2.2. The Tallung Bongi

Chapter X Death Rituals Of A Higher Order

1. Introduction

2. Limang Bongi, The Five Nights Ritual

3. Pitung Bongi (or Dipapitung Bongi)

4. Dirapa’i, That Which Is Enacted With An Interval

5. Ma’tomatua

5.1. Introduction

5.2. The Meaning Of The Ma’tomatua

5.3. Prayers From The Ma’tomatua

5.3.1. Pangimbo Umpatorro Pangngan 174

6. Ma’tombi, A Rite From The Limang Bongi Held In Sangalla’, 1966

7. Ma’batang Tombi In Parinding Village In The Kecamatan Of Tikala’ (bori’ Subdistrict)

8. Ma’parando In Sangalla’ 207

Chapter Xi Sa’pang’s Funeral

1. The First Part Of The Death Ritual For Sa’pang At Tandung, Kesu’

1. 1. Background And Preparations

1.2. Aluk Pia, First Part Of The Death Ritual

1.3. The Second Part Of The Death Ritual For Sa’pang

1.4. Description Of The Feast Terrain

2. The Contribution Of Buffaloes By Sa’pang’s Children And The Proposed Division Of The Deceased’s Sawahs

3. The Badong Sung At Tandung

4. The Recitation During Division Of Sacrificial Meat Among Descendants (mantaa Bati’)

Chapter Xii A Princely Burial

1. The First Part Of The Death Ritual For Puang Lasok Rinding Of Sangalla’: The Ma’batang Or Dipantunuan Pia

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Ma’batang And Ma’karu’dusan, October 5-7, 1970

1.3. Allo Torro; Thursday, October 8, 1970

1.4. Mebalun; Friday, October 9, 1970

1.5. Ma’tombi Banua; Saturday, October 10, 1970

1.6. Mantunu; Sunday, October 11, 1970

1.7. Ma’parempe’; Monday, October 12, 1970

1.8. Ma’bolong; Friday, October 16, 1970

Ma’pakatua 271

1.9. Ma’poli’ 272

1.10. Ma’pasurruk

1.11. Commentary Concerning The First Part Of The Death Ritual

2. The Second Part Of The Death Ritual For Puang Lasok Rinding Of Sangalla’

2.1. Background And Preparations

2.2. Rites

2.3. Commentary

Chapter Xiii Headhunting (mangaung)

1. Introduction

2. Areas Where Headhunting Was Customary

3. Reasons Why A Headhunt Would Be Undertaken

4. The Ritual Implications Of Headhunting

Chapter Xiv Conclusions

1. Introduction

2. Myths And Rituals

3. Binary Opposites And The Tri-partite Cosmos

4. Food And Rituals

4.1. The Death Ritual And Rice

4.2. Rice And Headhunting

4.3. Rice In The Death Ritual Of The East

5. Rice And Myths

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Sa'dan-Toraja: a study of their social life and religion

Published By: Original publisher The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. 1979-1986. v. 1: xii, 338 p. ; v. 2: x, 380 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Hetty Nooy-Palm

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1997. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Southern Toraja (OG13)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Classes (565); Marriage (580); Kinship (600); Districts (634); Religious beliefs (770); Priesthood (793);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is a detailed ethnographic study of the Sa'dan-Toraja people inhabiting part of the region which is designated as Sulawesi Selatan (south Celebes). The focus of the work is on the Toraja of the Tana Toraja region studied by Hetty Nooy-Palm during several field trips beginning in 1949-1950 up to November-January 1972-1973 (p. v). This is a two volume work. The first volume deals first with the natural surroundings and the social and territorial organization of the Sa'dan-Toraja and second describes Toraja religion, material culture, and priestly organization. Volume II contains a description of Sa'dan Toraja rituals of the East and of the West.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 7

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. og13-007

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Vol. 2 published : Dordrecht, Holland ; Cinnaminson, U.S.A. : Foris Publications Includes bibliographical references (v 1. p. 327; v.2 p. 348) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1949-1950, 1966-1973

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1995

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1900-1970s

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Tana Toraja region, South Celebes (Sulawesi Selatan), Indonesia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Toraja (Indonesian people)


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