Bennett, Wendell Clark, 1905-1953. The Tarahumara: an Indian tribe of northern Mexico

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter I Natural Environment

The Sierra

The Gorges

Drainage Of The Region

Chapter Ii Domestic Animals

Live Stock As Capital

Ecological Implications Of The Corn-cattle Complex

Rôle Of Men, Women, And Children In Animal Husbandry


Other Domestic Animals

Chapter Iii Agriculture And Food

Co-operation In Farming

Corn—the Basic Crop

Foods Prepared From Corn

Other Common Crops

Beans, Squash, And Greens Used As Food

Wheat In Tarahumara Culture

Foods Prepared From Wheat

Cultivation Of Fruit Trees

Fruits As Foods

Starvation Foods



Chapter Iv Lumbering And Woodcraft

Pine Lumbering



Corn-drying Structures

Further Utilization Of Pine

The Ash Tree

Musical Instruments

Minor Uses Of Trees

Chapter V Housekeeping And Manufacturing

Household Tasks


Twilled Basketry

Textile Weaving


Chapter Vi Costume And Personal Decoration

Costume Of Men


Costume Of The Women

Decoration And Ornaments

Costume Of Children

Changes In Clothing Styles

Chapter Vii Ethnozoölogy Of The Sierra






Reptiles And Amphibians


Chapter Viii Ethnobotany Of The Sierra 1

Esoteric And Ceremonial Plants

Cactaceae (cactus Family)

Solanaceae (nightshade Family)

Useful Plants

Salicaceae (willow Family)

Ericaceae (heath Family)

Rosaceae (rose Family)

Rutaceae (rue Family)

Solanaceae (nightshade Family)

Cistaceae (rockrose Family)

Cyperaceae (sedge Family)

Leguminosae (bean Family)

Convolvulaceae (morning-glory Family)

Pyrolaceae (pyrola Family)

Selaginellaceae (selaginella Family)

Gramineae (grass Family)


Compositae (sunflower Family)

Verbenaceae (vervain Family)

Brassicaceae (mustard Family)

Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot Family)

Amaranthaceae (amaranth Family)

Plantaginaceae (plantain Family)

Asclepiadaceae (milkweed Family)

Loganiaceae (logania Family)

Umbelliferae (parsley Family)

Labiatae (mint Family)

Chapter Ix Culture In The Gorges, And Interregional Trade


Food Patterns

Building Construction

Variation In Industrial Patterns And In Costume

Interregional Trade And Commerce

Chapter X Ethnobotany Of The Gorges

Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis Family)

Liliaceae (lily Family)

Cactaceae (cactus Family)

Moraceae (mulberry Family)

Mimosaceae (mimosa Family)

Myrtaceae (myrtle Family)

Euphorbiaceae (spurge Family) 7

Verbenaceae (vervain Family)

Solanaceae (nightshade Family)

Rubiaceae (madder Family)

Apocynaceae (dogbane Family)

Rutaceae (rue Family)

Leguminosae (bean Family)

Burseraceae (torchwood Family)

Caesalpiniaceae (senna Family)

Bombacaceae (cotton-tree Family)

Convolvulaceae (morning-glory Family)

Loganiaceae (logania Family)

Bignoniaceae (bignonia Family)

Fouquieriaceae (ocotillo Family)

Lauraceae (laurel Family)

Rhamnaceae (buckthorn Family)

Sapindaceae (soapberry Family)

Labiatae (mint Family)

Malvaceae (mallow Family)

Boraginaceae (borage Family)

Piperaceae (pepper Family)

Sapotaceae (sapote Family)

Platanaceae (plane-tree Family)

Rosaceae (rose Family)

Nyctacinaceae (four-o’clock Family)

Krameriaceae (rhatany Family)

Compositae (composite Family)

Vitaceae (grape Family)

Aristolochiaceae (birthwort Family)

Bromeliaceae (pineapple Family)

Polypodiaceae (fern Family)

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Xi Social Environment

Indian-mexican Relations

Kinds Of Groupings

Basic Pattern Of Isolation

Chapter Xii Economics

Individual Ownership Of Property

Division Of Property

Acquisition Of Property

Evaluation Of Property

Purchase, Sale, And Loan


Chapter Xiii Government

Status Of The Officials.

The Gobernador

Other Officials

Local Government And Mexican Government

Chapter Xiv Law

Types Of Crime And Punishment

Selected Cases

Legal Theory And Practice

Chapter Xv Kinship

Kinship Terms

Special Relationships

Personal Names

Chapter Xvi Marriage

The Mayor Official

The Marriage

Restrictions On Marriage

Extra-marital Relations


The Family Unit

Chapter Xvii Birth

Chapter Xviii Death

Funeral Customs

The Three Death Fiestas


Ideas Concerning The Dead

Chapter Xix Shamans

Shamanistic Education And Practice

Mythical And Medicinal Cures


The Shaman And The Church

Chapter Xx Native Fiestas

Component Parts

Curing Fiestas

Green-corn Fiesta

Rain Fiesta

Harvest Ceremony

Other Curing Fiestas


Chapter Xxi Peyote

The Journey For Peyote

Shamans And The Peyote Fiesta

Medicinal Properties

The Use Of Bakánawa (or Bakánori)

Chapter Xxii Church Fiestas

The Matachines

Fiesta Functionaries

Guadalupe Fiesta

Other Church Fiestas

Holy Week


Chapter Xxiii Religion

The Rôle Of The Church

God And His Work


The Soul

Mythical Beings

Beliefs Concerning Animals

Chapter Xxiv Social Life And Social Control

Sunday Gatherings



Socializing Forces Of Minor Import

The More Formal Elements Of Control


Chapter Xxv Sports



Chapter Xxvi Knowledge



Days And Directions



Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Xxvii Summary And Conclusions

A Brief Historical Sketch Of Mexican Contacts, From The Spanish Accounts

The Development Of Modern Tarahumara Technology From An Archaeological Basket-maker Substratum

Analysis Of Tarahumara Culture

Affiliations Of Tarahumara Culture With Other Sub-areas Of Aboriginal Northwest Mexico

Summary Table Of Classified Tarahumara Traits

Old Culture Traits Which Have Disappeared

Old Culture Traits Which Have Persisted

Old Culture Traits Which Have Deteriorated

Traits Of Foreign Introduction

Traits Which Are Combinations Of Old And Foreign Elements

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Tarahumara: an Indian tribe of northern Mexico

Published By: Original publisher Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press. 1935. xix, 412 p., plates ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Wendell C. Bennett and Robert M. Zingg

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1997. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Tarahumara (NU33)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is a comprehensive study of the Tarahumaras of northern Mexico. Part I, written by Zingg, describes Tarahumara material culture and physical environment. Particular attention is paid to economic activities such as animal husbandry, agriculture, and handicrafts. Native knowledge and utilization of wild animals and plants are recorded in the chapters on ethnozoology and ethnobotany. Part II, written by Bennett, is concerned with human relationships and social organization such as political structure, kinship, marriage, birth and death, shamans, fiestas, religion, sports, and social control. Part III, written by both authors, summarizes the descriptive data and formulates certain conclusions regarding the historical trends and distributional patterns of Tarahumara cultural traits.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nu33-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 395-401) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1930-1931

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Robert Lee ; 1959

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). not specified

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Chihuahua, Mexico

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Tarahumara Indians


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