Zingg, Robert M. (Robert Mowry), 1900-1957. Report of the Mr. and Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer expedition for Huichol ethnography: the Huichols: primitive artists

Table of Contents

Publication Information

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Part I: Socio-religious Organization

Section I: Spanish Catholic Acculurization

Chapter I: The Ecclesiastico-civil Organization Of The “catholic” Huichol Community

I. Introduction; Elementary Concepts Of A Systematic Sociology Investigated In This Study Of Huichol Socio-religious Organization

Ii. The Huichol Community: Its Center, And Its Functions

Iii. The Ecclesiastical Officers Of The Casa Real Of Tuxpan; Or In Other Communities Of The Church

Iv. Paraphernalia Of The Huichol Officers: Civil And Ecclesiastical

V. The Kawitéros

Vi. The Civil Officers Of The Huichols

A. Gobernador

B. Juez Or Alcalde

C. Aguacil

D. Capitán

E. Topiles

F. Fiscal

G. Tenanches

1. Inauguration Of The Tenanche

Vii. The Duties Of The Civil Officers

A. Lack Of Juridical Procedure

B. Crime And Punishment

1. Theft

2. Assault

3. Murder

C. Non-juridical Civil Functions Of The Officials

Viii. Huichol Participation In Mexican Revolutions

Ix. The Lack Of Tribal Solidarity Among The Huichols

A. Bringing Of Saints From Other Towns To The Rain-ceremony In The Only Official Intercommunity Contact

X. Preparations For The Ceremony And Feast Of Inauguration Of Huichol Officials

Xi. Beginning Ceremonies Attendant Upon Change Of Government

Xii. Final Ceremony In The Change Of Officers In The Huichol Community

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Chapter Ii: The Catholic Elements In Huichol Culture

I. “catholic” Baptism, And “compadre” Customs

Ii. Pagan-christian Assimilations In Huichol Catholic Religion

Iii. Christian Ideology Of The Huichols

A. The Trinity And St. Joseph

B. The Cult Of The Saints

1. Artistic Representation Of The Saints

2. The Cross And Its Representations

Iv. Huichol Philosophy Of Mexican Culture

A. Surveying

B. Metals, Metalurgy, And Minting

C. Foreigners

D. Mexican Pleasures And Vices

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Chapter Iii: The Catholic Ceremonies

I. The Catholic Ceremony Of Carnival At The Casa Real Of Tuxpan

A. The Preparations For The Ceremony Of Carnival

B. The Huichol Ceremonies At Carnival

Ii. The Catholic Ceremony Of Holy Week

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Section Ii: Social Organization Of Family And Ranchería Groups

Chapter Iv: Social Organization And The Rites Of Passage Upon Entering It, Birth Ceremonies

I. Introduction

A. Summary Of The Kinship Organization Of The Huichol Ranchería

Ii. Rites Of Passage: The Induction Of The Individual Into The Fundamental Huichol Group

A. Naming Ceremony At Birth

B. Huichol Names

C. Disposition Of The Umbilical Cord And Hair Of The Child

D. Huichol Childhood

E. Mythical Account Of Initiation Ceremonies

F. The Degree Of Social Conditioning Of The Huichol Individual Before Marriage

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Chapter V: Marriage And The Relation Of The Sexes

I. Rites Of Passage: Marriage: The Passage Of The Individual Into The Secondary Group Of The Extended Family

A. The Relations Of The Sexes

1. Breakdown Of Catholic Marriage; Concubinage Functional As Polygyny

2. Divorce

3. Huichol Sanctions Against Intimacy With Mexicans

4. Sexual Offenses Among The Huichols

B. Status Of Women

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Chapter Vi: Sickness, Death And The Soul

I. Rites Of Passage: Curing; The Passage Of The Individual From A Condition Of Ritual Uncleanness Back Into The Normal Social Group

A. Huichol Shamans And Curing

Ii. Rites Of Passage: Death Ceremony; Passage Of The Individual Completely Out Of All Contact With The Ordinary Social World Into The Great Undefined Beyond

A. Inheritance

B. The Huichol Conception Of The Human Soul

C. Huichol Conceptions Of Life Of Soul After Death

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Chapter Vii: The Huichol Temple Organization

I. Introduction

Ii. The Functions Of The Temple In Huichol Social Organization

Iii. Description Of The Temple At Ratontita

Iv. Fire-place, Sacred-hole, And God-disc Cover Within The Temple

V. The Myth Of The Sacred Hole And Its Functions

A. Offerings Of Paraphernalia And Sacrifice In Sacred Hole

B. Account Of The First Ceremony To Prepare The Soil For Seed

Vi. Organization Of The Huichol Temple Group

A. The Singing-shaman Of The Temple Group

B. The “keepers Of The Votive Bowls”

1. The Inaugural Ceremony

2. Appointment Of “keepers Of The Votive Bowls”

3. Sacredness Of These Officers And Fasts And Penitences

4. Functions Of These Officers And Penalties For Failure

Vii. The God-houses Of The “keepers Of The Votive Bowls” Of The Temple

A. The Functions Of God-houses And Their Paraphernalia In The Socio-religious Life Of The Huichols

B. God-house Of Grandfather Fire Tai (fire)- Opa Ki (house)

C. God-house Of The Sun-father, Tauopá Ki

D. God-house Of Pálikata (the God Of Deer-hunting)

E. God-house Of Na'aliwáemi (lumholtz' “mother East-water”) 76

F. God-house Of Otuanáka

G. God-house Of Keamukáme

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Chapter Viii: Other Religious Personnel Of The Huichols

I. The Huichol Clown In The Rain-ceremony

Ii. Shamanism Among The Huichols

A. The Singing-prophecying Shamans Of The Huichols

B. Cubing Shamans Among The Huichols

Iii. Bad Shamans Or Sorcerers Among The Huichols

A. Techniques Of Sorcery

Iv. Summary Of The Social Organization Of The Huichols

A. Conclusions And Problems Arising From This Study Of The Social Organization

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Part Ii: Religion

Section I: Conceptions And Procedures In Huichol Religion

Chapter Ix: Concepts Underlying Of Huichol Religion

I. Introduction The “supernatural” Theory Of Primitive Religion Vs. That Of The “sacred”

Ii. Concepts Of The Native Mind Underlying Huichol Religion

A. The Huichol Conception Of The Sacred, Ritual Uncleanness

B. Dreams And Privileged Experience Of Revelations Or Communications From The Gods

1. Communication Between The Gods By Dreams, Thought Transference, And By Votive Paraphernalia, Etc.

C. The World-directions Of The Huichols, The Six-point Symbolism

1. Color Symbolism

2. The Ceremonial Circuit

Iii. Sacred Treatment Of Natural Elements In Huichol Religion

A. The Huichol Treatment Of Wind

B. The Conceptual Treatment Of Flowers

1. Pollen

C. Sacred Water

1. Clouds

2. Ice

3. The Mystic Participation Of Water-serpents, Rain, Water, And Lightning

D. The Huichol Conception Of Beans, Squash, And Corn

E. Corn-deer-peyote, A Mystical Participation Required By Huichol Dogma

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Chapter X: Procedures Available In Huichol Religion

I. Introduction

A. Pilgrimages

B. The Sacred Deer-hunt Of The Huichols

1. Sacrifices And Blood-offerings

C. Offerings

D. Purification

1. Baptism And Ceremonial Baths

2. Burning Ritual Uncleanness In Grass

E. Vows

1. Penitences

A. Confession

F. Watching Altars

G. Suggestion Of The Sacred Ball-game From Which Life Or Death Results

Ii. Summary Of The Sacred Conceptions And Procedures Of Huichol Religion

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Section Ii: Huichol Pantheon, Shrines, Heros, And Devils

Chapter Xi: The Dry-season Gods

I. Introduction

Ii. The Dry-season Gods

A. The Fire-god, Tatevalí , “grandfather Fire”

1. Grandfather Fire As A Shaman

2. Grandfather Fire In The Peyote Cycle

B. The Second Fire-and Deer-god, “great-grandfather Deer-tail”

C. The Sun-god, Tayau, Tau , Father Sun

1. Paraphernalia Needed To Tame The Sun-father

D. Welíka Uimáli : Eagle-mother Of The Sixth World-region, The Sky

E. The Minor Dry-season Gods

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Chapter Xii: The Wet-season Goddesses Of The Huichols

I. The Conflict Between The Dry-season Gods And The Wet-season Goddesses

Ii. The Wet-season, Goddesses Of The Huichols

A. Nakawé : The Chief Goddess

1. Paraphernalia Of Nakawé

2. Sacrifices To Nakawé

3. “grandmother Growth” And The Stars

B. Otuanáka , The Corn-goddess

C. Tate Iolianáka , The Earth-goddess

D. Ereno (“foam”), The Goddess Of Love

E. Stuluwiákame , Huichol Goddess Of Child-birth And Children, And Less Prominently Of Increase Of Animals

1. Stuluwiákame And Peyote

F. Pálikata , “elder Brother,” The Patron God Of The Huichol Deer-hunt

G. Na'aliwáemi , Goddess Of Increase Of Animals

H. Keamukáme , Goddess Of Water, Clouds, Rain, And The Sea, Who Established The First Corn Ceremonies

I. Kacíwali , Corn And Water-goddess

J. Rapauwiémi , Rain-and Water-serpent-goddess

K. Komatéame , Corn-owner And Goddess Of Mid-wifery

L. Tate Ipau , The Snake-mother

M. The Snake-man

N. Kumúkame , The Singing Shaman Of The Wet-season Gods

O. Minor Wet-season Gods, Created By Nakawé

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Chapter Xiii: Caves Of The Gods, Shrines, And Sacred Places: And The Undeified Heros And Devils Of Huichol Mythology

I. Caves Of The Gods, Shrines, And Sacred Places

A. Shrine Of Grandfather Fire, Teakata (“earth-oven”)

B. Cave Of Nakawé , Grandmother Growth

C. Caves Established By Nakawé For The Minor Goddesses

D. Minor Shrines

1. Natural Geographic Features Identified With Mythical Events

2. Shrines For Deer-hunting

3. Sacred Spots Associated With Mythical Races

E. Places And Geographical Features Embraced In Huichol Mythology

Ii. The Undeified Heros And Devils Of Huichol Mythology

A. Elder-brother Wolf, Kauymáli , The Trickster Culture-hero Of The Huichols

1. The Mexican Race, Established By Kauymáli And His Wife

B. Buzzard: The Kind, Friendly, And Gentle Animal-man

C. The Horrid Ghoul And Figure Of Death, Tukákame

1. Victims Contaminated By The Magic Stool Of Tukákame Are Changed Into Chipmunks Who Bring Insanity To The Huichols

D. The Wind-devils: Haikúli, Haiwakame , And Hortimán

Iii. Summary Of The Huichol Pantheon, Shrines, Heros, And Devils

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Part Iii: The Sacred Art Of The Huichols

Section I: Music, The Dance, And The Drama

Chapter Xiv: Music And The Dance

I. Introduction To The Sacred Art Of The Huichols

Ii. Music Among The Huichols

Iii. Huichol Dancing

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Chapter Xv: Huichol Drama: The Dry-season Ceremonies

I. Huichol Drama: The Peyote Pilgrimage And Attendent Ceremonies

A. Ceremony Of Parched Corn As Seen At A Ranehería Of A Huichol Family, April 1, 1934

B. Ceremony Of Parched Corn At It Was Described At The Temple Of Ratontita

1. Second Stage Of The Ceremony At Ratontita

C. Conclusions On Dry-season Ceremonies

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Chapter Xvi: Huichol Drama: The Wet-season Ceremonies: The Rain-ceremony

I. Huichol Drama: The Rain-ceremony

A. Description Of The Huichol Ranchería Of The Ceremony

1. Description Of Huichol Gable Cap-stones

2. Ranch Of The Family Of Pascual's Sister, Juanita

3. Ranch Of The Third Sister

B. Preparations For The Rain-ceremony And Feast

C. Ceremonial Treatment Of Domestic Animals

1. The Branding Of Animals Done Only In The Rain-ceremony

D. Arrangement Of The Altar For The Ceremony

1. Manufacture Of Votive-bowls

E. The Arrival Of Guests

F. Beginning Of The Ceremonies

1. The “bull”-dance

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Chapter Xvii: Huichol Drama: Wet-season Ceremonies: Ceremony To Prepare The Soil For Seed

I. Huichol Drama: Ceremony To Prepare The Soil For Seed

A. Ceremony As Given At The Temple Of Ratontita

B. Feast To Prepare The Soil For Seed, As Seen At Tuxpan

1. Purpose, Preparations, And Arrangements For This Feast

2. Beginning Of The Ceremonies

3. Ceremony Of Showing The New “keepers Of The Votive Bowls” Their Offices

4. Continuation Of The Main Feast

5. Ceremony Of Changing “keepers Of The Votive Bowls”

A. Ceremony Of Payment To Successor

6. Ceremony Of Consecration Of New “keepers Of The Votive Bowls”

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Chapter Xviii: Huichol Drama: Combination Wet-and-dry-season Ceremony Of First Fruits

I. Introduction

Ii. Feast Of First Fruits, Ratontita

Iii. Summary And Conclusions: Huichol Drama

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Section Ii: Primitive Literature And Philosophy

Chapter Xix: The Mythology

I. Introduction

A. Mystic Participation In Primitive Literature And Philosophy

B. Cosmology As Revealed In The Primitive Philosophy Of Huichol Mythology

Ii. Myths Of The Dry-season Cycle

A. Abstract: The Birth Of Tatevalí (grandfather Fire) And The Contest Of Fire And Water ( Nakawé )

B. Abstract: The Sun Myth

1. Sub-story: The Jimson-weed Myth

2. Sub-story: Kauymáli Counteracts The Black Magic Of Jimson-weed With Peyote

3. Sub-story: Kauymáli Vaccinates The People And Brings The Sun Back To The Sky By His Ceremony And Singing

C. Abstract: The First Peyote Deer Journey Brings The Sun To The Sky

D. Abstract: The Myth Of The Huichol Temple

E. Abstract: Kauymáli Helps The Sun Win Over The Rain-goddesses In First Getting Deer's Blood For The Sacred Paraphernalia

F. Abstract: Kauymáli , The Wolf-man, Is Outsmarted But Gets Revenge

1. Sub-story: Kauymáli Is Outsmarted By The Moon-man

2. Sub-story: Kauymáli Is Outsmarted By Hortimán , The Wind-devil

G. Abstract: Youth Changes His Affiliations From The Sea-goddesses To The Sun-father And Makes A Vow To The Wolf-people In Order To Catch Deer

Iii. The Wet-season Myth Cycle

A. Abstract: Keamukáme Establishes The Corn Ceremonies

B. Abstract: The Water-and-corn Goddess, Kacíwali , And The Ant-people

C. Abstract: Nakawé Punishes The (god) People Because Sea-turtle Is Killed

D. Abstract: The Corn Myth

1. Sub-story: The Creation Of A Race Through The Corn-people

2. Sub-story: The Struggle Of Sun And Nakawé (dry- And Wet-season) Over Creation

A. Sun Saves One Boy From The Toothed Vaginas

B. Nakawé Destroys The Race And The World By Flood (the Huichol-christian? Flood Myth)

C. The Origin Of The Mexicans

3. Sub-story: Nakawé Assigns The Gods And Goddesses Their Homes

A. Ereno's Child, Stuluwiakame , Huichol Goddess Of Birth, Stolen And Rescued

B. The Cave Of Kacíwali

C. The Cave Of Nakawé

D. The Assignment Of Rapawíemi

E. Continuation Of Nakawé's Work In Dividing The World

4. Sub-story: The Story Of Duck-boy, Tumusaúwi

A. The Origin Of The Huichols By The Removal Of The Teeth From The Vaginas Of The Women To Be Married To Tumusaúwi

B. Kauymáli's Usual Sexual Weakness Brings Death To The Huichols

C. The Birth, Puberty (?), First-fruits Ceremonies Established

D. Pálikata (elder Brother) Saves Tumusaúwi's Abandoned Child, Which Becomes The Water-goddess, Na'aliwáeme

(1) Na'aliwáeme Gives Increase Of Crops And Cattle For Fulfilling Special Vows

(2) Na'aliwáeme Aids The Survivor Of Black-magic And Punishes The Unsuccessful Shamans (sorcerers)

E. Abstract: The Snake-man's Illicit Love For The Wife Of A Huichol Begets The First Rain And Curing-singers Of The Huichols

F. Abstract: “mayor” Nacario, 50 The Orphan-boy, Saves His Brothers From The Ghoul Tukákame , But Contaminated And Changed Into Chipmunks (?) They Bring Insanity To The Huichols

G. Abstract: Origin Of “death-bird” Ghouls, Death Comes To The Woman Of The Mythical Pre-huichol Race, Eáwali , Who Loved Bear And Buzzard

Iv. The Christian Myth Cycle

A. The Bee-mother Gives Wax For Candles

I. Sub-story: The Domesticated Bees

B. The Birth Of The Saints

1. Sub-story: Santo Cristo And The Julios (jews)

2. Sub-story: Santo Cristo Leaves To Establish The World And The Customs Of The Mexicans

3. Sub-story: The Virgin Of Guadalupe And San José

C. The Myth Of Santo Cristo

1. Sub-story: Santo Cristo Establishes Metal And Money

2. Sub-story: The Jews Are Punished For Pursuing Santo Cristo

3. Sub-story: Santo Cristo Makes Cattle From Wheat, Etc.

4. Sub-story: The Sun Battles Nakawé To Save The World Made By Santo Cristo

5. Sub-story: Santo Cristo Establishes Cattle Ceremonies Among The Huichols

6. Sub-story: Santo Cristo Establishes The Government As Well As Carnival And Holy Week Ceremonies Among The Huichols

7. Sub-story: Santo Cristo Prepares For Death

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Section Iii: Sacred Plastic Arts

Chapter Xx: Symbolism Of The Costume: And Of Dry-season Paraphernalia

I. Introduction: Mystic Participation Expressed In Primitive Art

Ii. Symbolic Art In The Huichol Costume

A. Face-painting

B. Peyote Head-plumes

Iii. Special Symbolic Paraphernalia Of The Dry-season Peyote Cycle

A. Special Votive Arrows Of Grandfather Fire And The Sun-father

B. The Peyote-brush

C. The Peyote Dance-staff Or Wand

1. A Wand Of Brazil -wood Dedicated To Grandfather Fire

D. Plumes Used On These Staffs

E. Deer-tail Plumes

F. Stuffed Squirrels And Rats

G. Other Sacred Art Objects Associated With The Dry-season Gods

1. The Ladder Of The Sun-father

2. Stone Block Of Grandfather Fire

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Chapter Xxi: Symbolism Of The God-house And Of Votive Paraphernalia

I. Symbolism Of The Huichol God-house And Its Characteristic Features

A. The Carved Gable Cap-stone, Nealíka (“face”) Of The Huichol God-house

B. Thf Altar Of The Huichol God-house

1. Description Of An Elaborate Huichol Altar

2. Other Contents Of The God-house

Ii. Symbolic Art Used On Altars Or Offered At Shrines As Votive Paraphernalia

A. Idols Of The Gods And Their Discs

B. The Sacred God-chair In The Symbolic Art Of The Huichols

C. The Huichol Prayer-arrows, Good And Bad

1. Tiny Representations Of Utilitarian Objects Hung On Votive Arrows

A. Soft Mad “beds”

B. Ceremonial Woven Sandals

2. Art Objects Hung On The Prayer-arrow Or Elsewhere Offered To The Gods

A. God-eyes, Tsikúli (“male Squash Blossom”)

B. “front-shields”, Nealíka (“face”)

C. “back-shields” Náma

D. Sacred Hawíme Itáli (“round Board”)

E. Sacred Itáli (“boards”)

D. Votive Bowls, Rukúli

E. The Symbolism Of Votive Candles In The Christian, Wet-season And Dry-season Cycles

1. Censers And Incense

F. Symbolism Of Feathers And Feather-work Among The Huichols

1. Feather Mantle For Children In First-fruits Ceremony

2. Ornament Of Bunches Of Feathers

3. Feather “fan” Used In The Ceremony To Prepare Soil For Seed

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Chapter Xxii: Symbolism Of Shaman's Paraphernalia, Musical Instruments, Food, And Minor Plastic Art

I. Paraphernalia Of Huichol Shamans

A. Shaman's Plumes

1. Shaman's Plumes Basket

B. The Shaman's Chair

Ii. Huichol Musical Instruments

A. The Drum

B. The Flute And The Battle

C. The Musical Bow And The Notched Deer Scapula

D. The Violin And Guitar, And Rare Huichol Use Of The Harp

Iii. Huichol Ceremonial Food

Iv. Minor Symbolic Art Of The Huichols

A. Animal Effigies

1. Animal Effigies Of Food

2. Animal Effigies Of Fired Clay And Wood

3. Woven Animals

B. Paper Flowers Attached To Votive Candles, Etc.

1. Artificial Flowers Of Aboriginal Pattern

V. Conclusions: Symbolic Art Of The Huichols

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Part Iv: Huichol Technology And Economics

Chapter Xxiii: Houses, Household Effects, And Industries

I. Introduction To Huichol Technology And Economics

Ii. Huichol Dwelling And Storage Structures

A. Manufacture Of Doors

B. Iron Tools Used By The Huichols

Iii. Household Effects

A. Household Effects Of Gourds ( Lagenaria Vulgaris )

B. Utensils For Food Preparation, And Huichol Foods

C. Preparation Of The Intoxicating Drinks Of The Huichols

Iv. Household Industries

A. Cord - Spinning And Basketry: Industry Of The Men

B. Spinning And Loom-weaving: Industry Of The Women

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Chapter Xxiv: Huichol Costume, Burden Carrying, Agriculture And Animals, Trade And Wages

I. Costume And Personal Decoration

A. Huichol Bow, Arrows, Quiver, And Sling

Ii. Burden Carrying

Iii. Agriculture And Domestic Animals

A. The Huichol Calender Of Agriculture

B. Huichol Gardening

C. Domestic Animals

Iv. Huichol Trade And Wages

V. Conclusions: The Necessity Eor A Theoretalic Sociology To Complement Theoretical Economics

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Chapter Xxv: Summary Of Huichol Culture

A. Part I. Summary Of The Socio-religious Organization Of The Huichols

B. Part Ii. Summary Of Huichol Religion

1. Introduction To Huichol Religion

2. Summary Of The Sacred Conceptions And Procedures Of Huichol Religion

3. Summary Of The Huichol Pantheon

C. Part Iii. Summary Of Huichol Art

1. Introduction Of The Sacred Arts Of The Huichols

A. Music Among The Huichols

B. Huichol. Dancing

C. Huichol Drama: The Peyote Ceremonies

D. Huichol Drama: The Rain-ceremony

E. Huichol Drama: Ceremony To Prepare The Soil For Seed

F. Huichol Drama: The First-fruits Ceremony

2. Mythology: Mystic Participation In Primitive Literature

3. The Plastic Art Of The Huichols

A. Symbolic Art

B. Decorative Art

C. Representative Art

D. Part. Iv. Summary Of Huichol Technology And Economics

Conclusions On Economics

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Chapter Xxvi: Conclusions: “genuine” And “spurious” Cultures; Primitive And Civilized

I. “genuine” And “spurious” Cultures

Ii. Primitive And Civilized Cultures Both “genuine” And “spurious”

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Report of the Mr. and Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer expedition for Huichol ethnography: the Huichols: primitive artists

Published By: Original publisher New York City: G.E. Stechert and Company. 1938. lxvi, 826 p. ill., map

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Robert Mowrey Zingg

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2017. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Huichol (NU19)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Cultural identity and pride (186); Community structure (621); General character of religion (771); Cosmology (772); Mythology (773); Congregations (794); Organized ceremonial (796); Prayers and sacrifices (782); Sacred objects and places (778); Verbal arts (5310); Music (533); Dance (535); Tillage (241); Cereal agriculture (243); Missions (797); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Inter-ethnic relations (629); Community heads (622); Vegetable production (244); Diet (262); Domesticated animals (231); Priesthood (793); Dwellings (342); Religious and educational structures (346); Magic (789); Income and demand (434); Division of labor by gender (462);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This document primarily draws on information the author gathered in the field in 1934, with additional data from Carl Lumholtz, who conducted fieldwork among the Huichol from 1894 to 1897. Much of the book is devoted to discussing change and continuity in the social and religious life of the Huichol in the face of increasing contact with Spanish missionaries and the Mexican state. Specific themes include: the place of religion in household relations and community life, mythology and organized ceremonials, sacred arts and symbolic representation, spirituality and acculturation, and technology and economic life.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nu19-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Varient title: The Huichols: primitive artists Includes bibliographical references (p. 795-796)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1934

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Anthropologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Teferi Abate Adem

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1890-1938

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) eastern Nayarit and northern Jalisco, Mexico

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Huichol Indians


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