Sahagún, Bernadino de, -1590. General history of the things of New Spain: Florentine codex: book 2 -- the ceremonies

Table of Contents

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De Las Cerimonjas

Second Book, Which Treateth Of The Feasts And Sacrifices By Which These Natives Honored Their Gods In Their State Of Infidelity.

First Chapter , Concerning The Calendar And The Feasts Of Fixed Date, The First Of Which Is The One Which Followeth. 1

Atl Caualo Or Quauitl Eua

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Chapter 2: Tlacaxipeualiztli

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Chapter 3: Toçoztontli

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Chapter 4: Uei Toçoztli

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Chapter 5: Toxcatl

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Chapter 6: Etzalqualiztli

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Chapter 7: Tecuilhuitontli

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Chapter 8: Uei Tecuilhuitl

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Chapter 9: Tlaxochimaco

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Chapter 10: Xocotl Uetzi

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Chapter 11: Ochpaniztli

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Chapter 12: Teotl Eco

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Chapter 13: Tepeilhuitl

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Chapter 14: Quecholli

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Chapter 15: Panquetzaliztli

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Chapter 16: Atemoztli

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Chapter 17: Tititl

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Chapter 18: Izcalli

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Chapter 19

Of The Movable Feasts

The Second Movable Feast

The Third Movable Feast

The Fourth Movable Feast

The Fifth Movable Feast

The Sixth Movable Feast

The Seventh Movable Feast

The Eighth Movable Feast

The Ninth Movable Feast

The Tenth Movable Feast

The Eleventh Movable Feast

The Twelfth Movable Feast

The Thirteenth Movable Feast

The Fourteenth Movable Feast

The Fifteenth Common Movable Feast

The Sixteenth Movable Feast

Twentieth Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Feast And Blood Sacrifices Which They Made On The First Day [and] Month, Which Was Named, And Which They Called, Atl Caualo Or Quauitl Eua. 1

Twenty-first Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Honors Paid, And Of The Blood Offerings Which Were Made, In The Second Month, Which Was Called Tlacaxipeualiztli. 1

Twenty-second Chapter , In Which Are Described The Celebration And Blood Sacrifices Which They Made In The Second Month, Known As And Called Tlacaxipeualiztli. 1

Twenty-third Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Feast And Of The Honors Which They Performed On The Feast Day In The Fourth Month, Which Was Known As Uci Toçoztli. 1

Sixth [twenty-fourth] Chapter , Which Relateth The Feast And Blood Sacrifices Made During All The Days 1 In The Fifth Month, Which Was Called Toxcatl. 2

Twenty-fifth Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Feast And Of The Offerings Which They Made Upon The Feast Day Of The Sixth Month, Which Was Called Etzalqualiztli. 1

Twenty-sixth Chapter In Which Are Related The Feast And Ceremonies Celebrated Upon The Feast In The Seventh Month, Which Was Named Tecuilhuitondi. 1

Twenty-seventh Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Feast And The Sacrifices Which They Made Upon The Days Of The Eighth Month, Which Was Called Uei Tecuilhuitl. 1

Twenty-eighth Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Feast And The Offerings Which They Made Upon The Feast Days Of The Ninth Month, Which Was Named Tlaxochimaco.

Twenty-ninth Chapter , In Which Are Named The Feasts And Blood Offerings Which They Made Upon The Days Of The Tenth Month, Which Was Called Xocotl Uetzi. 1

Thirtieth Chapter: Here Are Related The Feasts And The Ceremonies Which Were Performed On The Days Of The Eleventh Month, Which Was Named And Known As Ochpaniztli.

Thirty-first Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Feasts And The Ceremonies Which Were Performed On The Feast Of The Twelfth Month, Which Was Named Teotl Eco.

Thirty-second Chapter , In Which Are Related The Feasts And Sacrifices Which They Made, In The Days Of The Thirteenth Month, Which Was Known As, And Named, Tepeilhuitl.

Thirty-third Chapter , In Which Are Described The Feasts And Sacrifices Which They Offered As A Service; Which They Performed In The Days Of The Fourteenth Month, Which Was Called Quecholli. 1

Thirty-fourth Chapter , In Which They Tell Of The Feasts And Sacrifices Which Were Performed On The Days Of The Fifteenth Month, Which Was Called Panquetzaliztli. 1

Thirty-fifth Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Feasts And The Ceremonies Which They Observed In The Days Of The Sixteenth Month, Which Was Called Atemoztli.

Thirty-sixth Chapter , Where Are Related The Feasts And Sacrifices Which Were Made In The Days Of The Seventeenth Month, Which Was Called Titid. 1

Thirty-seventh Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Feasts And Ceremonies Performed In The Days Of The Eighteenth Month, Which Was Called Izcalli. 1

Thirty-eighth Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Feast Which Was Named Uauhquiltamaliztli, 1 Which Was Celebrated After The Days Of The Month Named Above; And When [it Was This Feast], They Celebrated It To Honor Him Who Was Their God, Whose Name Was Ixcoçauhqui.

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Temple Of Uitzilopochtli: Coatepetl. 1 I.

Here Is Described A Feast Which Was Observed Every Eight Years.

Behold [here] A True [relation] Of All [the Temples] Which Were The Temples Of The Mexicans.

Tlalocan, The Temple Of Epcoatl.

Macuilcalli, And Macuilquiauitl.



The Skull Frame 8 Of Mixcoapan.


Uey Quauhxicalco.




Tlillan Calmecac.

Mexico Calmecac.



A Separate Quauhxicalco.


The Skull Frame.

The Temple Of Uitznauac.


Tlacochcalco Acatl Yiacapan.



Priests' House At Uitznauac.

A Separate Quauhxicalco.

Temple Of Macuilcipactli.

Priests' House At Tetlanman.

Temple Of The While Cinteotl.


Temple Of Chicomecatl.



Skull Frame.


The Priests' House At Tlamatzinco.


Temple Of Mixcoatl.




The Great Skull Frame.


Temple Of Cinteotl.

Temple Of The Centzontotochtin.

Temple Of Cinteotl.







Temple Of Yiacatecutli.

Temple Of Uitzilinquatec.

The Priests' House At Yopico.

The Skull Frame At Yopico.

Skull Frame.

Temple Of Macuilmalinalli.




The Priests' House At Tzonmolco.


Temple Of Nappa Tecutli.




Yopicalco And Euacalco.


Tlacochcalco Quauhquiauac.




The Tribal Temple Of Uitznauac.


Tezcacoac Tlacochcalco.

Acatl Yiacapan Uei Calpulli.


The Tribal Temple.

Here Is Told In What Manner The Mexicans Made Offerings, And What They Made As Offerings In Their Temples.


The Offering Of Incense.

The Casting Of Copal [incense].

The Eating [kissing] Of The Earth.

The [ceremonial] Casting [of A Libation].

The [ceremonial] Pouring [of A Libation].

Here Are Told The Various Modes In Which Blood Was Shed And Offered Up.

Sacrificial Slaying, &c.

The Drawing Of Straws [through Parts Of The Body].

The Offering Of Thorns.

The Bloodying.

The Cutting Of The Ears.

The Twisting Off Of The Heads [of Birds].

The Eating [of Sacrificial Victims' Blood By The Gods].

The Payment Of A Debt [to The Gods].

The Spreading Of Fir Branches.

The Piling Up Of [fire]wood For The God.

The Sweeping.

Vigils. I. All-night Vigils.


Here Are Told, In Very Truth, The Offerings Which They Made, In Order To Pay Honor To The Devil.

The Swallowing Of Serpents.

The Swallowing Of Frogs.

Making Birds Fly.


Singing In The Manner Of Women.

The Moistening Of Chalk.

The Lifting [of Children], That They Might Grow.

A True [relation] Of Still Other Offerings With Which Similarly They Paid Honor To The Devil.

Hanging [an Object] Over The Breast.

[for] Pain.

The Setting Out Of The Children.

The Act Of Striping.

Lying In The Sacred Place.

Placing Of Men Upon The Straw.

Quickening [the Sun Or The Fire].

The Spreading Of Greens.

The Spreading Of A Bed Of Straw.

The Blowing Of Trumpets.

The Illumination With Fire.

The Piercing Of Ears.

The Piercing Of The [lower] Lip.

A True Relation Of All Those Who Served In The Houses Of Each Of The Gods.

The Keeper Of The Gods Of The Mexicans.

The Keeper Of The God Of Uitznauac, Omacatl.

The Keeper Of The Gods Of Others.

Ome Tochtzin.


The Keeper Of The Gods Of Molonco.

The [priest Of] Cinteotl.

The Keeper Of The Gods Of Atempan.

The Caretaker.

The Keeper Of The Goddess Of Zapotlan.

The Keeper Of The God Of Tecanman.

Ome Tochtli Tezcatzoncatl.

Ome Tochtli Yiauhqueme.

Ome Tochtli Tomiauh.

Ome Tochtli Acalua.

Ome Tochtli Quatlapanqui.

Ome Tochtli Tlilhua.

Ome Tochtli Pâtecatl.

Ome Tochtli Napa Tecutli.

Ome Tochtli Papaztac.

The Same Ome Tochtli.


The Iztac Ciuatl Ciuaquacuilli.

The Keeper Of The God Ixcoçauhqui, At Tzonmolco.


The Keeper Of The God At Tecpantzinco.

Epcoaquacuilli Tepictoton.

The Keeper Of The God At The Temple Of Ixtlilton.

The Keeper Of The God Xochipilli At Aticpac.

The Keeper Of The God Opochtli, At Atlixeliuhqui.

The Keeper Of The God Xipe, At Iopico.

The Keeper Of The God Yiacatecutli, At Pochtlan.

The Same, For Chiconquiauitl, At Pochtlan.

The Keeper Of The God Of Izquitlan.

The Keeper Of The Chachalmeca Gods, At Zapotlan.

The Old Priest Of Chalchiuhtli Icue Acatonal.

Acolnauacatl, Acolmiztli.

The Keeper Of The God Totoltecatl, At Tollan.

A True [relation] Of How They Served The Sun; And Of How Many Times Trumpets Were Blown During The Day And During The Night; And Of How Many Times Incense Was Offered.

A True [relation] Of What Was Accomplished And Of The Works Which Were Done In The Houses Of The Devils.

The Education Of Men.



The Laying Of Fires.

Guarding During The Night.

The Carrying Of Wood.

The Cutting Of Thorns.

The Gathering Of Fir Branches.

The Blowing Of Shell Trumpets.

The Dissolving Of Black Coloring.

A True [relation] Of How They Prayed To The Devils, And How Oaths Were Made.

Here Is Told [what] The Songs Of The Demons Were, With Which They Paid Honor To Them In Their Temples And Outside [of Their Temples]. 14

Song Of Uitzilopochtli.

Song Of Uitznauac Iaotl.

Song Of Tlaloc.

Song Of Teteo Innan.

Song Of Chimalpanecatl And Tlaltecauananotl.

Song Of Ixcoçauhqui.

Song Of Mimixcoa. 16

Song Of Xochipilli.

Song Of Xochiquetzal.

Song Of Amimitl. 17

Song Of Otontecutli. 18

Song Of Aiopechtli.

Song Of Ciuacoatl.

Behold The Song Chanted Every Eight Years When Water Tamales Were Eaten.

Song Of Xipe Totec Iouallauan.

Song Of Chicome Coatl.

Song Of Totochtin Tezcatzoncatl.

Song Of Atlaua.

Song Of Macuilxochitl.

Song Of Yiacatecutli.

Account Of What The Women Did There At The Temples.

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: General history of the things of New Spain: Florentine codex: book 2 -- the ceremonies

Published By: Original publisher Sante Fe, New Mexico: The School of American Research and the University of Utah. 1951. x, 216 p., 12 plates ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Fray Bernadino de Sahagún ; translated from the Aztec, with notes and illustrations, by Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2017. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Aztecs (NU07)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Organized ceremonial (796); Spirits and gods (776); Ordering of time (805); Revelation and divination (787); Sacred objects and places (778); Alcoholic beverages (273); Food preparation (252); Diet (262); Personal grooming (302); General tools (412); Occupational specialization (463); Prayers and sacrifices (782);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The Franciscan missionary Sahagún presaged modern ethnography when, beginning the 1540s, he initiated a project to better comprehend pre-Conquest Aztec ideology and culture, interviewing elderly elites and having the data transcribed and illustrated by multilingual native scholars over a period of some thirty years. This is an English language translation of the original side-by-side Spanish and Nahuatl text. It gives detailed descriptions of the ceremonies of the Aztecs, including material on the priesthood, ceremonial calendar, temples, and sacrifices.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 3

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nu07-003

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English translation from Aztec

Note: Uniform title: Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España. English & Aztec

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1540-1579

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Missionary-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. James R. Leary ; 1958

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1500-1579

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) central highland Mexico

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Indians of Mexico--Antiquities/Aztecs/Natural history--Mexico/Mexico--History--Conquest, 1519-1540/Mexico--Antiquities


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