Buskirk, Winfred, 1908-. The Western Apache: living with the land before 1950

Table of Contents

Publication Information

The Western Apache

Chapter 1 Introduction

Ethnographic Summary

Chapter 2 Agriculture

Farming Sites

Topography, Soils, Site Selection


Climate And Calendar

Ownership And Inheritance


Size Of Farms


Floodwater, Irrigation, And Dry Farming

Division Of Labor, Helpers, Attitudes



Clearing And Preparation Of Fields

Corn ( Zea Mays ): Seed Selection

Corn: Planting

Corn: Care

Corn: Harvesting

Corn: Storage

Corn: Names And Varieties

Corn: Origins

Corn: Attitudes And Preferences

Corn: Uses (other Than Foods)

Corn: Recipes






Devil's Claw


Small Grains

Miscellaneous Crops

Miscellaneous Ritual

Summary And Conclusions

Chapter 3 Hunting

Areas And Migrations


Boys' Training


Arrow Poison






Small Game

Birds And Eggs

Reptiles, Fish, And Insects



Meat Recipes


Division And Trade

Miscellaneous Ritual Associated With Hunting

Summary And Conclusions

Chapter 4 Gathering

Formation Of Gathering Parties

Migrations And Camps

Implements And Techniques

Ownership And Marking

Division Of Products







Yucca Baccata

Yucca Other Than Baccata






Miscellaneous Seeds

Berries And Fruits


Roots, Fungi, And Miscellaneous



Comestible Clay

Condiments Other Than Salt And Clay

Summary And Conclusions

Chapter 5 Foods

Utensils And Implements

Kitchens And Fires

Children's Foods


Social Customs

Relative Importance, Preferences, Attitudes

Miscellaneous Ritual Associated With Foods

Meals And Menus


Summary And Conclusions

Chapter 6 Conclusions

I. The Cultural Position Of The Western Apache In The Southwest

Ii. General Summary

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Western Apache: living with the land before 1950

Published By: Original publisher Norman [Okla.]: University of Oklahoma Press. 1986. xiv, 273 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Winfred Buskirk ; foreword by Morris E. Opler

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2002. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Western Apache (NT21)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Collecting (222); Hunting and trapping (224); Tillage (241); Cereal agriculture (243); Food preparation (252); Diet (262);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The focus of this book is the depiction of Western Apache lifeways during the pre-reservation period (prior to the 1870s). The ethnographic data were gathered from the memory accounts of informants and supplemented with information from the published literature. Although most of the cultural information presented in this document refers specifically to the Cibecue and White Mountain Apache groups, these data will be found generally applicable to all of the Western Apache people. The basic descriptive section of this study presents in detail the fundamental aspects of Western Apache subsistence economy (agriculture, hunting, and gathering) and related material culture such as the procurement, processing, storage and preparation of foods, as well as associated rituals, beliefs, social implications, and attitudes concerning these phases of culture (p. 3). In addition to the above, Buskirk also describes culture changes that have taken place among the Western Apache in the post-reservation period (ca. 1870s - 1950).

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 58

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nt21-058

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Revision of thesis (Ph.D.)--University of New Mexico, 1949 Includes bibliographical references (p. 249-256) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1939, 1941, 1946-1948

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 2000

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1800 - 1950

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Cibecue and White Mountain Apache, east central Arizona, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Western Apache Indians


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