Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.
Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records
Opler, Morris Edward, 1907-1996
An Apache life-way: the economic, social, and religious
institutions of the Chiricahua Indians
Published By: Original publisher
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1941. xviii, 500 p.,
16 plates ill.
By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication
Morris Edward Opler
HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.:
Human Relations Area Files, 2012. Computer File
Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis.
Eastern Apache (NT08)
Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF
Childhood activities (857);
Puberty and initiation (881);
Arranging a marriage (584);
Revelation and divination (787);
Shamans and psychotherapists (756);
Sacred objects and places (778);
Theory of disease (753);
Magical and mental therapy (755);
Division of labor by gender (462);
Extramarital sex relations (837);
Athletic sports (526);
Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document
This source describes the culture of the Chiricahua Apache
as it existed during the youth (i.e., ca. 1870) of the author's older informants from whom
much of the data contained in this work was collected. Specifically, the author has
attempted to show how societal influences inherent in the socialization processes impinge
upon and direct an individual's personality development in such a manner as to produce a
valued and accepted member of Chiricahua society. This process of socialization takes place
through the individual's initial awareness of his culture, his initial contacts with its
percepts, the social pressure that is brought to bear in order to enforce conformity, and
the final adjustment, of the individual as measured through acceptance, to the demands,
obligations and satisfactions of his society. In the presentation of his data, and
development of his primary thesis the author gives much incidental information on various
other aspects of Chiricahua ethnology. The source is divided into nine major parts, with
emphasis on socialization processes throughout. These are: childhood; maturation (with
emphasis on the molding of sex attitudes, the girl's puberty rite, and the training of boys
for raid and war); social relations of adults; folk beliefs, medical practices and
shamanism; household maintenance (hunting, use of wild plants, foods and beverages, their
preparation and preservation, economic interest in warfare, division of labor, agriculture,
property trade and gift giving); marital and sexual life of adults; the general round of
life (including information on camp life and etiquette, humor, recreation, smoking, and
games); status and political organization; and death and eschatology. The material for this
source was gathered by the author, a professional anthropologist, during a cumulative
period of time of approximately two years from 1931-1937. Over thirty native informants
have contributed information to the author's field notes.
Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents
Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.
Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs.
Language: Language that the document is written in
Includes bibliographical references (481-482)and index
Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document
Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data
Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection.
John Beierle; 1964, 1970, 2011
Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date).
Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)
Southwest United States; northern Sonora and
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings
Apache Indians//Indians of North America//Chiricahua Indians --
Social life and customs.