Wallis, Wilson D. (Wilson Dallam), 1886-1970. The Micmac Indians of eastern Canada

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part One Tribal Life

Chapter I Studies Of The Micmac

Chapter Ii Elnu, The People

The Name

Population And Distribution

Geographic Environment

Physical Traits


Chapter Iii Economic Life


Capture Of Sea Mammals


Bow And Arrow

Hunting Dogs


Skinning Animals And Tanning Hides

Means Of Transport

Muskweakwitan, The Birch-bark Canoe

Other Types Of Canoe

Toboggans And Sleds


Travel, Maps, And Messages




Chapter Iv Shelter, Food, Clothing, Crafts

The Wigwam

The Smokehouse And The Preservation Of Foods

Food And Its Preparation

Meat And Fish



Vegetable Foods



Maple Sugar

Tobacco And Pipes

Utensils And Tools

Birch-bark Vessels




Household Utensils



Foot Covering





Traditional Dress



Arts And Crafts



Moose-hair And Quill Work

Carving And Modeling

Ornamental Designs

Chapter V Concepts Of The Natural World

Celestial Phenomena

The Heavens

The Sun

The Moon

The Stars


Thunder And Lightning


Fog And Dew

Springs And Streams

Weather Signs

Local Geography

Time Divisions


Chapter Vi Zoology And Botany

Transformation Of Species

Respect For Animals

Tabooed Animal Foods

Beliefs About Animals




Caribou And Deer


Other Land Animals

Snakes And Serpents

Domestic Animals



Learning Songs From Birds


Chapter Vii The Body In Sickness And In Health


Sense Organs

Alimentary System


Disease And Its Treatment

Sweat Lodge.

Seventeenth-century Treatments


The Seventeenth-century Medicineman

Chapter Viii Mental Processes


Drema Experiences Of John Newell

Dreams Of Other Pictou Men (john Newell, Narrator)

Chapter Ix Religion

Sun Worship

The Medicineman As Diviner

The Land Of The Dead

Chapter X The Supernatural

Supernatural Beings



Supernatural Races

Supernatural Power




Keskamzit Objects

Everyday Magic

Signs And Omens

Everything Is A Sign Of Something

Chapter Xi Social And Political Organization

The Chief

Assistant Chief


Bonds Of Unity


Feasts In The Seventeenth And Eighteenth Centuries

St. Anne's Day

Chapter Xii Dance, Song, And Games





Other Games

Chapter Xiii Intertribal Orientation And Relations

Attitudes Toward Other Tribes

Maliseet And Penobscot

Northern Indian Tribes







Return Of The Warriors

Captives And Slaves


Alliance And Confederacy

Chapter Xiv Family, Kin, And Marriage

Wigwam Life

Relationship And Social Status

Terms Of Relationship

Joking Relationships

Age Status


John Newell's Marriage

How Peter Ginnish Got His Wife

Love Story


Age At Marriage

Tribal Marriage

The Wedding


Early Marriage Customs

The Status Of Women

Chapter Xv From Birth To Death

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Childbirth And Infant Care In The Seventeenth And Eighteenth Centuries


Orphans And Adopted Children

The Aged

Death And Burial Rites

Death And Burial In The Seventeenth Century

The Dying

The Soul


Preparation Of The Body

Funeral Rites



Chapter Xvi The Modern Micmac

Material Culture

Recreation And Holidays

Weddings And Funerals

Medicine And Disease

Beliefs About The Supernatural

Micmac Attitudes

General Bibliography

Part Two Folktales And Traditions


Chapter I Tales About Gluskap

1. Gluskap's Early Adventures

2. Gluskap And The Animals

3. Gluskap Turns People Into Frogs

4. Gluskap Wins A Contest With Pesadasixunji [scalped]

5. Animals And People Get Muscles

6. Gluskap Has Power To Grant Wishes

7. Gluskap Leaves Instructions With The Dogs

8. How The Beaver Got His Tail

9. Gluskap Gives The Frogs Their Voices

10. The Origin Of The Cedar's Twist

11. The Origin Of The Canoe

12. Gluskap As Transformer

At Baie Des Chaleurs

At Gaspe

13. Gluskap And The Two Kings

14. Gluskap Visits The King

15. Gluskap Supplies A French Warship

16. Gluskap Assists The Indians In A Fight

17. Gluskap's Prophecy Fulfilled

Chapter Viii Origins Of Material Culture

81. Fire-maker

82. Bow And Arrow

83. Origin Of The Eel Spear

84. Origin Of The Snowshoe

85. Origin Of Weaving

86. Origin Of Dyes

87. Origin Of Corn

Chapter Xi History And Tradition

Other Tribes

116. Maliseet

117. Montagnais

118. Western Indians

119. Mohawk

120. Gainskugwak

121. Mohawk Magic And Micmac Magic

122. Mohawk Fights At Barney River

123. A Micmac Buoin And His Wife Fight Mohawk

124. Fights With Mohawk And English

125. Wedjibokwedjik [the Little Boy Who Has Fits]: A Micmac Ginap Who Slew Mohawk 3

126. Duneil's Adventures With The Mohawk

127. Duneil's Encounter With The French And English

128. Sabiesagamac And His Sons

Micmac And Europeans

129. Columbus' Visit

130. The First French Visitors

Why Micmac Have A Treaty With The King

131. Father Maillard

132. A Woman Buoin

133. Bill Dumfy's Story

Miramichi Traditions

134. The History F Burnt Church And Its Church

135. Scots Civilize The Micmac

136. The Miramichi Fire

137. The Campbellton Fire

Bibliography Of Micmac Folklore

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Micmac Indians of eastern Canada

Published By: Original publisher Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 1955. xvi, 515 p. [Incomplete]

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Wilson D. Wallis and Ruth Sawtell Wallis

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mi'kmaq (NJ05)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Ideas about nature and people (820); Food quest (220); Sociocultural trends (178); Shipbuilding (396); Dwellings (342); Magicians and diviners (791); War (720); Burial practices and funerals (764); Literary texts (539); Mythology (773); External relations (648);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This monograph is the result of fieldwork by Wallis originally in 1911-1912, and a revisit by Wallis and his wife in 1953 to see what changes had occurred in the intervening 40 years. The monograph is divided into two parts: the first, Tribal Life, contains the ethnography of the people and concludes with an analysis of culture change and the status of the modern Micmac; the second part, Folktales and Traditions, contains material about the culture hero Gluskap, supernatural beings, history and tradition, origins of material culture, magic and animal stories. The volume concludes with three appendices of zoological, botanical and anatomical terms. Wilson Wallis is Professor Emeritus at the University of Minnesota and both he and his wife are well-known anthropologists.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nj05-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 309-314) Pages 338-395, 401-446, and 481-492, which contain folktales with little cultural content, have not been processed for the Micmac collection.

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1911-1912, 1953

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologists-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Timothy J. O'Leary ; 1961: John Beierle; 2009

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1500-1953

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Eastern Canada

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Micmac Indians


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