Osgood, Cornelius, 1905-1985. Ingalik material culture

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part One: The Purpose

Synoptic Statement Of Purpose

The Conceptual System

Application Of The System

Part Two: The Data


The Ingalik

The Country

Historic Contacts 5

Source Literature


The Material Culture

Explanation And Criticism





The Items Or Manufactures

Woman's Awl—a

Woman's Awl—b

Woman's Awl—c

Man's Awl—a

Man's Awl—b

Wood Chisel



Labret Awl

Skin Puncture Awl

Sewing Awl

Skin Thimble

Bone Bark Scraper

Bone Birch Bark Remover

Bone Skin Scraper

Stone Skin Scraper

Stone Skin Rubber

Bone Wood Scraper

Beaver Jaw Root Scraper

Beaver Tooth

Beaver Tooth Wood Chisel

Beaver Tooth Drawknife

Bone Boot Crimper

Birch Bark Knife

Ulu Or Woman's Knife

Stone Skinning Knife

Stone Wood Trimming Knife

Bone Knife

Bone Knife Sheath

Horn Knife

Wood Snow Knife

Stone Bone Cutter

Skin Hand Pad

Stone Ax

Stone Adze

Horn Adze

Wood Wedge

Horn Wedge

Wood Maul

Grinding Stone

Semi-tanned Skin Line Or Babiche 2

Line Stretching Frame

Tanned Skin Line

Rawhide Line

Sinew Thread Or Line

Willow Bark Line

Willow Bast (inner Bark) Line

Forked Stick For Bast Line

Whole Willow Line

Willow Root Line

Spruce Root Line

Spruce Wood Line

Grass Line 4

Nettle Line

Fish Skin Line

Wood Feather Box

Eating Dish

Serving Dish

Food Dish

Fish Dish

Burl Dish

Food Bowl

Visitor's Bowl

Soup Bowl

Tanning Bowl

Man's Urine Bowl

Wood Drinking Cup

Wood Spoon

Small Wood Spoon

Deep Wood Spoon

Canoe Bailing Spoon

Water Basket

Berry Basket

Fish Net Basket

Water Hole Basket

Canoe Fish Basket

Canoe Drinking Cup

Woman's Urine Basket

Urine Collecting Basket

Birch Bark Boiling Basket

Grass Basket

Grass Mat

Lamp Wick Bag

Clay Pot

Clay Lamp

Shell Bowl

Skin Bag

Skin Pack Sack

Spruce Chewing Gum Bag

Skin Sewing Bag

Loon Skin Tool Bag

Fish Skin Bag

Fish Skin Tool Bag

Fish Skin Fish Bag

Gut Bag

Loche Stomach Oil Bag

Fire Drill

Tanned Skin

Work Board

Snowshoe Needle—a

Snowshoe Needle—b

Muskrat Stretcher

Beaver Stretcher

Squirrel Skin Scraping Board

Fish Skin Cover

Willow Broom

Bird Wing Broom

Lamprey Stick

Lamprey Mortar And Pestle

Wood Pestle

Oil Funnel

Broiling Stick

Cooking Rack

Digging Stick

Digging Post


Breath Protector

Ceremonial Pack Line Bone

Lamp Stand


Snow Glasses

Tying Rod For Dog

Cage For Pet

Urine Soap


Surgical Implements


Dentalium 10

Spruce Gum Glue

Spruce Chewing Gum

Dry Fish

“ice Cream”

Miscellaneous Implements





Spear Thrower And Darts





Stone War Knife

War Fence

Net Shuttle

Net Measure

Seine Net

Gill Net

Beaver Net

Dip Net—a

Dip Net—b

Net-like Fish Drag

Fish Hook

Ice Chisel

Ice Scoop

Net-setting Needle

Fish Rake—a

Fish Rake—b

Dog Salmon Trap

Summer Or Whitefish Trap

Winter Or Loche Trap

Jackfish Trap

Blackfish Trap

Side Stream Or Salmon Trout—grayling Trap

Blackfish Trap Fence

Fish Trap Fence

Fish Weir

Caribou Snare

Rabbit Snare

Ptarmigan And Grouse Snare

Ground Squirrel Snare

Lynx Snare

Bear Snare

Tree Squirrel Snare

Toppling Trigger Deadfall

Friction Trigger Deadfall

Beaver Deadfall

Fox Pitfall

Caribou Surround

Parka Stretching Frame


Blanket Parka

Short Parka

Over Parka

Bird Skin Parka



Under Trousers

Combination Trousers And Footwear (hose)

Over Trousers

Inner Belt

Outer Belt


Over Boots

Waterproof Boots

Under Boots

Ceremonial Slippers

Duffel 15


Over Mittens



Ceremonial Hat

Rabbit Skin Choker

Robe (blanket)

Pillow 16

Skin Pregnancy Belt

Baby's Shirt

Baby's Hat

Baby's Slippers

Baby's Combination Trousers And Footwear

Baby's Coveralls

Children's Clothing

Baby Strap

Birch Bark Cradle

Salmon Skin Cradle

Cradle Swing


Labret Plugs

Nose Bead

Ear Beads



Hair Tassel


Kashim (men's House, Dance House)

Excavation For Walls And Entrance

The Walls

The Entrance

Entrance Doors

The Roof

The Entryway

The Tunnel

The Floor

The Benches

The Time Required For Construction

Small Winter House

Excavation For Walls And Entrance

The Walls

The Entrance And Entrance Doors

The Roof

The Entryway

The Tunnel And Floor

The Benches

The Shelf

Large Winter House

The Roof

The Benches

Kashim-like Winter House

Spruce Plank Summer House

Spruce Bark Summer House

Cottonwood Summer House

Birch Bark Summer House

Grass Mat Summer House

Spruce Wood Smoke House

One-sided Smoke House

Willow Smoke House

Open Camp

Hemispherical Shelter (beaver House)

Dugout Snow House

Inverted V-shaped Shelter

Willow Tipi


Lucky Animal's Fur Cache 27

Underground Cache

Underground Fish Cache

Platform Cache—a

Platform Cache—b

Tree Cache

Fish Drying Rack

Sled Rack

Canoe Rack





Pack Line

Pack Line Breast Piece

Pack Line Shoulder Pieces

Pack Sticks

Pointed Snowshoe

Lacing Of Snowshoe

Key For Lacing Front Panel Of Snowshoe

Key For Lacing Rear Panel Of Snowshoe

Loucheux-type Snowshoe

Willow Snowshoe

Snowshoe Pattern


Innoko-type Sled

Birch Bark Hunting Canoe

Canoe Bark

Floor Rack

Stem And Stern Posts


Assembling The Canoe

Birch Bark Traveling Canoe

Birch Bark Canoe Paddle

Canoe Building Outside Supports

Canoe Building Gunwale Supports

Canoe Building Gunwale Clamp

Canoe Building Pegs

Moose Skin Boat



Dugout Canoe

Square Raft—a

Square Raft—b

Red Dye

Blue Dye

Black Dye

Yellow Dye

Red Paint—a

Red Paint—b

Black Paint—a

Black Paint—b

White Paint

Blue Paint

Stone Paint Mortar

Paint Brush—a

Paint Brush—b

Miscellaneous Toys





Bull Roarer

Ratchet 42

Snapping Sticks


Hole And Peg Game Implements

Hoop And Pole Game Implements

Snow-snake Game Implements

Toss Ball Game Ball

Racket Game Implements

Shinny Game Implements

Biting Game Implement


Ceremonial Hoop And Pole Game Implements

Ceremonial Bouncing Game Implements

Ceremonial Quoit Game Implements

Miscellaneous Game Implements

Counting Sticks

Puberty Paraphernalia: Head Band—a

Puberty Paraphernalia: Head Band—b

Puberty Paraphernalia: Head Band—c

Miscellaneous Puberty Paraphernalia



Coffin Rack

Coffin House

Shaman's Coffin House

Grave Pole Cover

Cremation Pyre

Miscellaneous Funerary Objects

Tambourine Drum

Shaman's Paraphernalia


Lucky Pole Ceremony Pole

Bladder Ceremony Bladders

Doll Ceremony Dolls

Miscellaneous Doll Ceremony Paraphernalia


Miscellaneous Mask Ceremony Paraphernalia

Partner's Potlatch Paraphernalia

Animal's Ceremony Paraphernalia

Clapper Sticks

Part Three: The Analysis







Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Ingalik material culture

Published By: Original publisher New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press. 1970. 500 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Cornelius Osgood

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2016. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Ingalik (NA08)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Bone, horn, and shell technology (321); Woodworking (322); Mats and basketry (285); Work in skins (281); Normal garb (291); Paraphernalia (293); Clothing manufacture (294); Dwellings (342); Building interiors and arrangement (353); Furniture (352); Utensils (415); General tools (412); Fishing (226); Fishing gear (227); Knots and lashings (284); Cordage (283); Boats (501); Vehicles (493);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document In this one of three volumes reconstructing traditional Ingalik culture and society back to first documented contact, Osgood classifies and analyzes more than three hundred Ingalik material culture items collected during his mid-1930s fieldwork, emphasizing form, manufacture, and utility in daily life.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. na08-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Reprint of the 1940 ed. Includes bibliographical references (p.485-487)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1934, 1937

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Anthropologist – 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Teferi Abate Adem ; 2014

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1834-1937

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Anvik, southwestern Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Deg Hit'an Indians--Material culture//Indians of North America--Material culture--Alaska


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