Vaux, Roland de, 1903-1971. Ancient Israel: its life and institutions

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Introduction: Nomadism And Its Survival

1. The Background

2. Tribal Organization

(a) The Constitution Of A Tribe

(b) The Union, Division And Disappearance Of Tribes

(c) The Organization And Government Of A Tribe

(d) Tribal Territory. War And Raiding

3. The Law Of Hospitality And Asylum

4. Tribal Solidarity And Blood-vengeance

5. The Later Development Of Tribal Organization In Israel

6. Relics Of Nomadism

7. The ‘nomadic Ideal’ Of The Prophets

8. The Rekabite

Part I: Family Institutions

Chapter One: The Family

1. Of What Type Was The Israelite Family?

2. Family Solidarity. The Go'el

3. The Later Development Of Family Customs

Chapter Two: Marriage

1. Polygamy And Monogamy

2. The Typical Israelite Marriage

3. Choosing The Bride

4. Engagements

5. Marriage Ceremonies

6. Repudiation And Divorce

7. Adultery And Fornication

8. The Levirate

Chapter Three: The Position Of Women: Widows

Chapter Four: Children

1. Attitude To Children

2. Birth

3. The Name

4. Circumcision

5. Education

6. Adoption

Chapter Five: Succession And Inheritance

Chapter Six: Death And Funeral Rites

1. Treatment Of The Corpse

2. Burial

3. Mourning Rites

4. Rites Concerning Food

5. The Funeral Lamentations

6. Interpretation Of These Rites

Part Ii: Civil Institutions

Chapter One: Population

Chapter Two: The Free Population: Its Divisions

1. Social Evolution

2. The Men Of Rank And Influence

3. The ‘people Of The Land’

4. Rich And Poor

5. Resident Aliens

6. Wage-earners

7. Craftsmen

8. Merchants

Chapter Three: Slaves

1. The Existence Of Slavery In Israel

2. Slaves Of Foreign Origin

3. Israelite Slaves

4. The Number And Value Of Slaves

5. The Position Of Slaves

6. Female Slaves

7. Runaway Slaves

8. The Emancipation Of Slaves

9. State Slaves

Chapter Four: The Israelite Concept Of The State

1. Israel And The Various Eastern Notions Of The State

2. The Twelve Tribes Of Israel

3. The Institution Of The Monarchy

4. The Dual Monarchy

5. The Kingdoms Of Israel And Judah

6. The Post-exilic Community

7. Was There An Israelite Idea Of The State?

Chapter Five: The Person Of The King

1. Accession To The Throne

2. The Coronation Rites

3. The Coronation Name

4. The Enthronement Psalms

5. The King As Saviour

6. Divine Adoption

7. The King And Worship

Chapter Six: The Royal Household

1. The Harem

2. The Great Lady

3. The Royal Children

4. The King's Attendants

5. The Royal Guard

6. The Royal Estate

Chapter Seven: The Principal Officials Of The King

1. The Ministers Of David And Solomon

2. The Master Of The Palace

3. The Royal Secretary

4. The Royal Herald

Chapter Eight: The Administration Of The Kingdom

1. The Kingdom Of David

2. The Administration Under Solomon

3. The Districts Of Judah

4. The Districts Of The Kingdom Of Israel

5. Local Administration

Chapter Nine: Finance And Public Works

1. Royal Revenues And State Revenues

2. ‘ Voluntary’ Or Exceptional Contributions

3. Tithes

4. Forced Labour

Chapter Ten: Law And Justice

1. Legislative Codes

2. Eastern Law In Ancient Times

3. The Sources Of Israelite Law

4. Characteristics Of Israelite Law

5. The King's Legislative And Judicial Powers

6. Judges And Courts Of Law

7. Procedure

8. The Judgment Of God

9. Penalties

10. Private Vengeance And Cities Of Refuge

Chapter Eleven: Economic Life

1. Landed Property

2. Family Property And Large Estates

3. Conveyances And Similar Formalities

4. Deposit And Hiring

5. Loans

6. Securities

7. Sureties And Bail

8. The Sabbatical Year

9. The Jubilee Year

Chapter Twelve: Divisions Of Time

1. Ancient Eastern Calendars

2. The Israelite Calendar. The Day

3. The Month

4. The Week

5. The Year

6. The Beginning Of The Year

7. The Eras

Chapter Thirteen: Weights And Measures

1. Israelite ‘metrology’

2. Linear Measures

3. Measures Of Capacity

4. Measures Of Weight

5. The Coinage

Iii: Military Institutions

Chapter One: The Armies Of Israel

1. A People Under Arms

2. The Professional Army

3. The Conscript Army

Chapter Two: Fortified Cities And Siege Warfare

1. Fortified Towns

2. Ramparts

3. Fortified Gates And Citadels

4. Siege Warfare

5. The Water Supply

Chapter Three: Armaments

1. Offensive Weapons

2. Defensive Arms

Chapter Four: War

1. A Short Military History Of Israel

2. The Conduct Of War

3. The Consequences Of War

Chapter Five: The Holy War

1. The Concept Of The Holy War, And Its Rites

2. The Holy Wars At The Beginning Of Israel's History

3. Religion And The Wars Under The Monarchy

4. The Religious Wars Of The Maccabees

5. The ‘order Of The War’ From Qumran

Iv: Religious Institutions


Chapter One: Semitic Sanctuaries

1. Sacred Territory

2. The Sacred Character Of Places Of Cultic Worship

3. The Choice Of Places Of Cultic Worship

4. Ziggurats

5. Temples

6. ‘high Places’

Chapter Two: The First Israelite Sanctuaries

1. The Places Where The Patriarchs Worshipped

2. The Desert Sanctuary: The Tent

3. The Ark Of The Covenant

4. The Sanctuaries In The Land Of Israel Before The Building Of The Temple

Chapter Three: The Temple At Jerusalem

1. Solomon's Temple

2. The History Of Solomon's Temple

3. The Post-exilic Temple

4. The Theology Of The Temple

Chapter Four: The Centralization Of The Cult

1. Central Sanctuary Or Sole Sanctuary?

2. Solomon's Temple And Rival Sanctuaries

3. Reforms Aiming At Centralization

4. Deuteronomy

5. Later Sanctuaries Outside Jerusalem

6. The Origin Of Synagogues

Chapter Five: The Priestly Office

1. The Name

2. The Installation Of Priests

3. The Priest And The Sanctuary

4. Priests And Divine Oracles

5. The Priest As A Teacher

6. The Priest And Sacrifice

7. The Priest As Mediator

Chapter Six: The Levites

1. Etymology

2. The Hereditary Priesthood

3. The Priestly Tribe Of Levi

4. Historical Development

5. Levitical Towns

6. Was There Ever A Non-priestly Tribe Called Levi?

7. The Origin Of The Levites

Chapter Seven: The Priesthood In Jerusalem Under The Monarchy

1. Ebyathar And Sadoq

2. The Descendants Of Sadoq

3. The Priests And The Kings

4. The Hierarchy

5. The Revenues Of The Clergy

6. The Lower-ranking Personnel

7. Were There Prophets Attached To The Temple?

Chapter Eight: The Priesthood After The Exile

1. Priests And Levites Down To The Period Of Esdras And Nehemias

2. The Levites In The Work Of The Chronicler

3. ‘sons Of Sadoq’ And ‘sons Of Aaron’

4. The High Priest

5. The Revenues Of The Temple And Of The Clergy

Chapter Nine: Altars

1. Pre-israelite Altars In Palestine

2. Israelite Altars Outside The Main Sanctuary

3. The Altars Used In The Desert

4. The Altars In Solomon's Temple

5. The Altar Of Ezechiel

6. The Altars In The Second Temple

7. The Religious Significance Of Altars

Chapter Ten: The Ritual Of Sacrifice

1. Holocausts

2. Communion Sacrifices

3. Expiatory Sacrifices

4. Vegetable Offerings

5. The Shewbread

6. Offerings Of Incense

Chapter Eleven: The History Of Sacrifice In Israel

1. The Critical Theory

2. General Considerations

3. Holocausts And Communion-sacrifices

4. Expiatory Sacrifices

5. Vegetable Offerings And Incense-offerings

6. Conclusion

Chapter Twelve: The Origin Of Israelite Ritual

1. Mesopotamian Sacrifice

2. Sacrifice Among The Ancient Arabs

3. Canaanite Sacrifices

4. The Origin Of The Sacrificial Ritual Of Israel

5. Human Sacrifice In Israel

Chapter Thirteen: The Religious Significance Of Sacrifice

1. Was Sacrifice A Gift To A Malevolent Or A Selfish Deity?

2. Did Sacrifice Achieve Union With The Deity By Magic?

3. Was Sacrifice A Meal Taken By The God?

4. Outline Of A Theory Of Sacrifice

5. Polemic Against Sacrifices

Chapter Fourteen: Secondary Acts Of The Cult

1. Liturgical Prayer

2. Rites Of Purification And Of De-consecration

3. Rites Of Consecration

Chapter Fifteen: The Liturgical Calendar

1. The Ordinary Services Of The Temple

2. The Religious Calendars

Chapter Sixteen: The Sabbath Day

1. The Name: Its Etymology

2. Was The Sabbath Of Babylonian Origin?

3. Was The Sabbath Of Canaanite Origin?

4. Was The Sabbath Of Qenite Origin?

5. The Antiquity Of The Sabbath

6. The Religious Significance Of The Sabbath

7. The History Of The Sabbath

Chapter Seventeen: The Ancient Feasts Of Israel

1. The Feasts Of The Passover And Of Unleavened Bread

2. The Feast Of Weeks

3. The Feast Of Tents

4. Was There A New Year Feast?

5. Was There A Feast Of The Enthronement Of Yahweh?

Chapter Eighteen: The Later Feasts

1. The Day Of Atonement

2. The Feast Of The Hanukkah

3. The Feast Of Purim

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Ancient Israel: its life and institutions

Published By: Original publisher New York: McGraw-Hill. 1961. xxiii, 592 p.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Roland de Vaux ; translated by John McHugh

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2020. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Israelites (MF07)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Religious and educational structures (346); Real property (423); Borrowing and lending (426); Inheritance (428); Occupational specialization (463); Personal names (551); Gender status (562); Slavery (567); Marriage (580); Household (592); Clans (614); Inter-ethnic relations (629); Territorial hierarchy (631); Government institutions (640); Burial practices and funerals (764); Legal norms (671); Sanctions (681); Judicial authority (692); Trial procedure (695); Armed forces (700); Military technology (710); Instigation of war (721); Religious beliefs (770); Priesthood (793); Organized ceremonial (796); Weights and measures (804); Ordering of time (805); ;

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This book is a thorough examination of the customs of Ancient Israel, drawing on three major sources: the Bible, the archaeology and history of the Ancient Near East, and current ethnography of the Middle East. The author describes in detail the organization and practices of family, state, military and religious institutions.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. mf07-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Translation of Les institutions de l'Ancien Testament. Includes bibliographical references (p. 519-552)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document not applicable

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Historian-4

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Ian Skoggard: 2020

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 2000–500 BC

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Israel; Palestinian territories

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Jews--Social life and customs--To 70 A.D.//Judaism--History--To 70 A.D.


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