Junod, Henri Alexandre, 1863-1934. The life of a South African tribe: vol. 1

Table of Contents

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Preliminary Chapter The Thonga Tribe

I. Geographical Delimitation Of The Tribe.

Ii. Tribe, Groups And Clans.

Iii. The Generic Name Of The Tribe.

Iv. The Six Groups Of The Thonga Clans.

V. The Numerical Strength Of The Thonga Tribe.

Vi. The History Of The Thonga Tribe

A. Prehistoric Period.

B. Historic Period.

Vii. Ethnic Characteristics Of The Thonga Tribe.

First Part The Life Of The Individual

Chapter I The Evolution Of A Man From Birth To Death

A. Infancy

I. The Day Of Birth.

Ii. The First Week; Confinement Period.

Iii. The Nursing Period.

1) The Ntehe.

2) The Diet During The Nursing Period.

3) Dentition.

4) The Presentation To The Moon (ku Yandla).

5) The Tying Of The Cotton String.

6) The Weaning.

B. Childhood

1) Herding The Goats.

2) Stealing.

3) Catching Game.

4) Learning The Science Of The Bush.

5) Playing.

C. The Age Of Puberty

I. Circumcision Rites.

1) Spread And Origin Of Circumcision Amongst The Thongas.

2) General Characteristics Of The Circumcision Rites.

3) The Three Series Of Rites Of Circumcision.

A) Separation Rites.

B) Marginal Rites.

I. The Sungi.

Ii. The Sexual And Language Taboos Of The Sungi.

Iii. The Trials.

Iv. The Teaching Of Formulae.

C) Aggregation Rites.

I. The Mulagaru.

Ii. The Mayiwayiwane Dance.

Iii. The Last Day.

Iv. The Chameleon Procession.

Ii. Other Puberty Rites.

1) The Custom Of The Erotic Dream (tilorela).

2) The Piercing Of The Ears (ku Tjunya, (ro.), Boshela. (dj.).

3) The Gangisa.

D. Marriage

I. Love Charms.

Ii. Marriage Ceremonies Of The Mpfumo Clan.

1) The Betrothal (buta).

2) The Betrothal Visits (tjekela And Koroka).

3) Taboos Of The Betrothal Period.

4) Lobola Feast.

A) Preparations.

B) The Assault Of The Village.

C) The Counting Of The Lobolo.

D) The Wedding Procession.

E) The Religious Act.

F) The Symbolical Belt.

5) The Tlhoma, Departure Of The Bride For The Conjugal Dwelling.

Iii. Marriage Customs In Other Ronga Clans.

Iv. Marriage Ceremonies In The Northern Clans.

V. Marriage By Abduction.

E. Mature Age

I. The Bantu Ideal.

Ii. Fixing The Wax Ring.

F. Old Age

G. Death

I. The Last Days.

Ii. The Grave.

Iii. The Burial.

Iv. The Great Mourning Of The First Five Days.

1) The Great Mourning Amongst The Ba-ronga.

2) The Great Mourning In The Northern Clans.

V. Sexual Rites Of Purification.

Vi. Family Rites.

1) Amongst The Ba-ronga.

2) Family Rites In The Northern Clans.

Vii. Various Cases Of Death.

Chapter Ii The Evolution Of A Woman From Birth To Death

Essay Of A Ronga Girl On The Subject.

A. Before Marriage

I. The Girls' Games.

Ii. Nubility Customs.

1) The Khomba Rite.

2) Tattooing (tlhabela Tinhlanga).

3) Pointing Of The Teeth (ku Hleta).

4) The Milebe Custom.

B. Marriage And Conjugal Life

1) Conditions Of Marriage

2) Special Feminine Taboos.

3) The First Year Of Married Life.

4) Husband And Wife.

1) Cases Of Recommendation.

2) Cases Of Prohibition.

5) Sterility.

6) Pregnancy And Miscarriage.

7) Parturition.

8) Loss Of Children.

9) Adultery.

10) Divorce.

11) Widowhood.

C. Old Age And Death

Second Part The Life Of The Family And Of The Village

Chapter I The Life Of The Family

A. Remarks On The Table Of Terms Of Relationship In Ten South African Tribes Or Sub-tribes (app. Iv)

B. Explanation Of Thonga Terms Of Relationship

I. Blood Relationships.

1) Relatives On The Father's Side.

2) Relatives On The Mother's Side.

Ii. Relations With Parents-in-law.

1) Relationship On The Wife's Side.

A) General Characteristics.

B) The Bakoñwana.

The Wife's Mother.

The Wife Of The Brother-in-law, The Great Mukoñwana.

C) The Tinamu.

2) Relations On The Husband's Side.

C. Marriage Rules

I. Cases Of Absolute Prohibition.

Ii. Marriages Conditionally Permitted.

Iii. Marriages Permitted.

Iv. Marriages Recommended.

1) Right Of Pre-emption.

2) The Right Of Inheritance.

D. Remnants Of Previous Systems Of Relationship.

I. Original Promiscuity.

Ii. Group Marriage.

Iii. Matriarchy.

1) Duties And Rights Of The Maternal Uncle.

2) Rights Of The Uterine Nephew.

E. The Lobola Custom.

I. The History Of The Custom. How It Is Practised.

Ii. The Original Meaning And The Consequences Of The Lobola.

1) Advantages Of The Lobola Custom.

2) Bad Consequences Of The Lobola Custom.

F. Polygamy.

I. Origin And Spread Of Polygamy Amongst The Thongas.

Ii. Consequences Of Polygamy.

G. Some Features Of The Relationship System Amongst Other South African Tribes.

Chapter Ii The Life Of The Village.

A. The Thonga Village.

B. Moving A Village And Founding A New One.

I. In The Northern Clans.

Ii. In The Ba-ronga Clans.

Iii. Some Remarks On The Rules Of Moving.

C. The Headman And The Organisation Of The Village.

D. Daily Life In The Village.

I. Women's Occupations.

Ii. Men's Occupations.

Iii. Games Of Adults.

E. Rules Of Politeness And Hospitality.

Third Part National Life.

Chapter I The Clan.

A. The Actual Organisation Of The Clan.

B. The Laudatory Name Of The Clans And Totemism.

Chapter Ii The Life History Of The Chief.

A. Birth And Youth.

B. Coronation Of The Chief.

C. The Official Marriage Of The Chief.

D. The Reign.

I. The Sacred Character Of The Chief.

Ii. The Regalia.

Iii. The Right Of Luma, And The First Fruits Rites.

I. The Luma Without A Religious Ceremony.

Ii. The Luma Of The Kafir Corn.

Iii. The Luma Of Bukanye And The Great National Feast.

A) The Luma Of The Gods And Of The Chief.

B) The Luma Of The Army.

C) The Luma In The Village.

D) The Feasting Of The Chief In The Villages.

Conclusion On The Luma Rite.

Iv. Taxation.

V. Dangers And Difficulties Of The Chieftainship.

1) The Character Of The Chief.

2) The System Of Government.

3) The Law Of Succession.

E. Death.

Chapter Iii The Court And Tribunal.

A. The Village Of The Chief.

B. Court Personages.

I. The Counsellors.

Ii. The Favourites, Or Messengers.

Iii. The Herald.

Iv. The Public Vituperator.

C. Sundry Court Customs

I. The Big Drum (muntshintshi).

Ii. The Bunanga.

Iii. The Shipalapala.

Iv. Visitors.

V. The Kondza Custom.

Vi. Diplomatic Relations.

D. The Tribunal Of The Chief.

I. Legislative Affairs.

Ii. Judicial Cases.

1) Sense Of Justice.

2) Civil Cases.

3) Criminal Cases.

Chapter Iv The Army.

A. War-like Proclivities Of The Thongas.

B. War Costume And Weapons.

C. The Mobilisation Of The Army.

D. The Mukhumbi, The Circle Of Warriors.

E. War Songs.

F. The War Dance.

G. Administering The War-medicine.

H. On The War Path. The Battle. Strategy. Panics. Return Home.

I. The Fate Of The Slain And The Treatment Of The Slayers.

I. The Fate Of The Slain.

Ii. The Treatment Of The Slayers.

J. Some Remarks About War Rites.

Appendix I (see P. 31) Characteristics Of The Six Dialects Of The Thonga Language.

Appendix Ii (see P. 40) On Thonga Names, Nicknames And Surnames.

Appendix Iii (see P. 98) Unnatural Vice In The Johannesburg Compounds.

Appendix Iv (see P. 221). South African Bantu Kinship System.

Appendix V (see P. 226)

Appendix Vi (see P. 265) The Story Of Paulus K., Illustrating The Matlulana Superstition And The Thonga Horror Of Polyandry.

Appendix Vii (see P. 279) The Story Of Spoon Libombo, Showing That, When The Lobolo Has Not Been Paid Or Has Been Returned, The Children Belong To The Mother's And Not To The Father's Family.

Appendix Viii (see P. 281) The Story Of Gidhlana Ngwetsa Of Rikatla; A Typical Case Illustrating The Lobola, Divorce, And Leper Customs Of The Ba-ronga.

Appendix Ix (see P. 530). The Story Of Mboza And Muhambi And Of The Women Inherited By Them, Illustrating The Consequences Of Lobola And Of Its Suppression.

Appendix X Short Account Of Two South African Wars.

Appendix Xi (see P. 463). The Position Of Ñwamantibyane When The 1894 War Broke Out.

Latin Notes For Medical Men And Ethnographers

Practical Conclusions

I. On The Rites Of Infancy (p. 36–61).

Ii. On Circumcision (see P. 94).

Iii. On Marriage Customs And Lobola (see P. 125 And 282).

Iv. On Polygamy (see P. 289).

V. On The Fate Of The Thonga Village (see P. 355).

Vi. Conclusions On The Third Part.

The New Era, And The Future Of The South African Tribe.

The Result Of The Encounter Of Civilisation And Bantu Tribal Life Up To The Present Day.

2. How Can We Preserve The Sense Of Political Responsibility Amongst South African Natives? (1)

Untitled Section: ...

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The life of a South African tribe: vol. 1

Published By: Original publisher London: Macmillan and Co., Limited. 1927. 559 p.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Henri A. Junod

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Tsonga (FT06)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Cultural identity and pride (186); Community structure (621); Localized kin groups (618); Tribe and nation (619); Linguistic identification (197); Traditional history (173); Mythology (773); Labor supply and employment (464); Division of labor by gender (462); External relations (648); Puberty and initiation (881); Cult of the dead (769); Marriage (580); Visiting and hospitality (574); Avoidance and taboo (784); Diet (262); Alcoholic beverages (273); Burial practices and funerals (764); Status and treatment of the aged (888); Household (592); Family relationships (593); Polygamy (595); Premarital sex relations (836); Extramarital sex relations (837); Kinship terminology (601); Kin relationships (602); Cousins (605); Offenses and sanctions (680); Ethnometeorology (821);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The author, a missionary and head of the Swiss Romande Mission at Lourenco Marques, lived for many years among the Thonga and knew them intimately. Suggestions for reform of Thonga customs and beliefs have been kept to a minimum and appear for the most part at the ends of chapters. In this study Junod made use not only of his own knowledge and observations of the Thonga but also of Thonga informants, whose names are indicated in parentheses in the text. Note: Frequent references are made in the text to the Latin notes which appear on pages 513-520. Translation of these notes was made into English for HRAF by Richard Neuse, and the translation appears in brackets along with the Latin text.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ft06-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Pages omitted from the file: 290-309 inclusive, dealing with kinship systems of other tribes

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1895-1909

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Missionary-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Ruth Heffner ; 1953

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1895-1927

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) South Africa

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Tsonga (African peoples)


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