Hulstaert, Gustave E.. Marriage among the Nkundu

Table of Contents

Publication Information


Chapter I Preliminaries And Generalities

Part 1 The Emotional Life Of The Nkundó

Article I. Affection Among Relatives

1. Parents And Children

2. Brothers And Sisters

3. Various Relatives

Article Ii. The Bolúmbú

Article Iii. Friendship

Article Iv. Conjugal Love

Part 2 The Sexual Life Of The Nkundó

Article I. Sexual Modesty

1. Clothing. Nudity.

2. Speech. Obscenities And Propriety.

3. Dances


Article Ii. Preparation For Sexual Life

1. The Woman's Preparation

2. Circumcision

3. Tattooing

4. Bead Belts

5. Depilation

Article Iii. Prostitution

Article Iv. Premarital Sexuality

1. Virginity

2. Sexual Relations Between Single People

3. Children Born Out Of Wedlock

Article V. Sexual Intercourse

1. Circumstances Relative To The Act

2. Rape

3. Incomplete Acts

Article Vi. Vices “ Contra Naturam ”

1. Male Homosexuality

2 Female Homosexuality

3. Masturbation

4. Onanism / Coitus Interruptus /

Article Vii. Incest

1. Among Distant Relatives

2. Between Close Relatives

Article Viii. Love Philters

1. Efóndé

2. Bontálá

Part 3 The Search For A Wife

Chapter Ii The Marriage Agreement

Article I. The Beginning Of Negotiations

Article Ii. The Ndonga

Article Iii. The Engagement

1. The Payment Of The Ikulá

2. Consent

3. Abduction

4. The Departure Of The Fiancée

5. The Fiancée's Arrival At Her Husband's Home

6. The Life Of The Engaged Couple

7. The Ndanga

8. The Breaking Of An Engagement

Article Iv. Walo — Bombuluku

1. Terminology

2. The Nature Of Walo Valuables

3. The Source Of The Valuables

4. The Amount Of The Walo

5. Paying The Walo

Article V. Valuables For The Mother

Article Vi. Presents, Or Beéngo

Article Vii. Nkomi

Article Viii. Acceptance Of The Bride Price

Article Ix. The B□s□ng□

1. The Nature Of The B□s□ng□ And The Relevant Terminology

2. The Value And Consequences Of The B□s□ng□

Article X. Purpose Of The Bride Price

Article Xi General Remarks On The Payment Of The Bride Price

Article Xii. The Attitude Toward The Bride Price

1. What Is The Woman's Attitude Toward The Bride Price?

2. Our Attitude Toward The Bride Price

3. Traffic In Bride Prices

4. The Reason For The Existence Of The Bride Price

5. The Essential Component Of The Bride Price

6. The Role Of The Family

Chapter Iii The Various Forms Of Marriage And Pseudo-marital Unions

Article I. Marriage By Nkumbó

Article Ii. Marriage By Inheritance

Article Iii. The Bosóló

Article Iv. The Replacement Or Substitution

Article V. The Offer Of A Wife

Article Vi. Exchange

Article Vii. Purchase

Article Viii. General Conclusions

Article Ix. The Nature Of Nkundó Marriage

Chapter Iv. The Age Of The Bride And Groom

Article I. Girls

Article Ii. Boys

Chapter V. Obstacles To Marriage

Article I. “race”

Article Ii. Social Status

Article Iii. Kinship

Article Iv. Affinity

1. General Considerations

2. The Rules

1. Direct Affinity

2. Indirect Affinity

Chapter Vi Married Life

Article I. The Division Of Labor

Article Ii. Property

Article Iii. Relations Between Spouses; Their Various Rights And Duties

1. Meals

2. Illness

3. Abandonment Of The Home Shared By The Couple

4. Punishments

Article Iv Relations Between The Wife And Her Family

Article V Relations Between The Husband And His Wife's Family

1. Father-in-law And Mother-in-law

2. Female Relatives

3. Legal Matters

4. Treason


Article Vi Relations Between The Wife And Her Husband's Family

Article Vii. Adultery

1. Terminology

2. Gifts

3. Evidence Of Adultery

4. Sanctions

5. Public Opinion

6. Aggravating Circumstances

7. Remarks And General Conclusions

Article Viii. Relations Permitted To The Wife

1. Transitory Relations

2. Concubinage

Article Ix. The Family's Role In Marriage

Chapter Vii Polygamy

Article I. The Bomátsa

Article Ii. The Favorite

Article Iii. The Bolúmbú

Article Iv. The Ebísa

Article V. Slave Women

Article Vi. Life In A Harem

Article Vii. Monogamy

Article Viii. The Women's Attitude Toward Polygamy

1. A Preference For Monogamy

2. A Preference For Polygamy

Article Ix. Children Of A Polygamist

Article X. Causes Of Polygamy

Chapter Viii Divorce

Article I. Reasons For Divorce

Article Ii Ways Of Dissolving A Marriage

1. In The Past

2. At The Present Time

3. Special Cases

Article Iii. Restitution Of The Bride Price

1. The Obligation To Make Restitution

2. Methods Of Making Restitution

3. The Formalities Of Restitution

4. Gifts And Payments Subject To Restitution


Article Iv. Payment For Children

Article V The Position Of Former Spouses And Their Children

Article Vi Magic Practices Pertaining To Divorce

Chapter Ix Death

Article I. Sorrow And Mourning

Article Ii. Seclusion Of Widows

Article Iii. The Burial

Article Iv. Funeral Payments

Article V. The Social Position Of A Widow

Article Vi. The Economic Position Of A Widow

Article Vii. Economic Effects Of Death

1. Bride Price And Dowry

2. Inheritance From The Husband

3. Inheritance From The Wife

Article Viii Death Of The Fiancé Before The Payment Of The Bride Price

Article Ix The Death Of The Woman Before The Payment Of The Bride Price

1. Before The Walo

2. Before The B□s□ng□

Article X A Woman's Death At The Home Of Her Own Family


Article Xi A Wife's Death In The Home Of Another Man


Chapter X Children

Article I. Preliminaries

1. Generalities

2. Abortion

Article Ii. Conception And Pregnancy

1. Elímá

2. The Beginnings Of Pregnancy

3. The Period Of Prohibitions

Article Iii. Birth

1. Delivery

2. The Hygiene Of Mother And Child

3. Seclusion

Article Iv. Nursing

Article V. Name Giving

Article Vi. Twins

Article Vii. Circumcision

Article Viii. Education

Article Ix. Rights Over The Children


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Marriage among the Nkundu

Published By: Original publisher Bruxelles: Librairie Falk fils, Georges Van Campenhout, Successeur. 1938. iv, 520 p.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Gustave E. Hulstaert

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mongo (FO32)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Marriage (580); Family relationships (593); Polygamy (595); Extended families (596); Inheritance (428); Burial practices and funerals (764); Techniques of socialization (861); Kin relationships (602); Lineages (613);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This document, by a Belgian Roman Catholic missionary, is an exhaustive study of the ramifications of marriage and the family in the life of the Nkundu Mongo, with emphasis on the aboriginal culture. Topics treated include a preliminary description of Nkundu history and culture, the marriage agreement, the various forms of marriage and pseudo-marriage, the age of the bride and groom, obstacles to marriage, married life, polygamy, divorce, death, and children. There is a brief section on kinship terminology.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 2

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fo32-002

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English translation from French

Note: Translation of: [Le Mariage des Nkundó Translated for the HRAF files by Monika B. Vizedom Information on the <highlight rend='underline'>ndonga</highlight>, the official witness to the marriage, usually related to both parties, has been indexed for ARRANGING A MARRIAGE. Material on the <highlight rend='underline'>boóndo</highlight>, a payment in apology or retraction, has been indexed for ETIQUETTE.

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document ca. 1930

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Missionary-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Timothy J. O'Leary ; 1959

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1930-1938

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Democratic Republic of the Congo

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mongo (African people)


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