Schlippe, Pierre de, 1904-. Shifting cultivation in Africa: the Zande system of agriculture

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part One The Background Of The System

Chapter I Pax Azandea

Chapter Ii The Zande Scheme

Chapter Iii The Socio-agricultural Survey

Approaches And Methods

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Iv Zande Ecological Conceptions

Chapter V Zande Crops

I. Cereals

Ii. Pulses

Iii. Oil Seeds

Iv. Starchy Roots

V. Fruity Vegetables And Fruits

Vi. Leafy Vegetables And Stems

Vii. Calabashes And Gourds

Viii. Fibres

Ix. Various Crops

X. Subspontaneous Crops

Chapter Vi Zande Tools And Field Work

Iron Tools (pls. 11, 12)

Making And Maintaining Tools

Methods Of Using Tools

Chapter Vii Zande Crop Processing

The Homestead

Household Utensils [4]

Processing And Storage

Part Three The Structure Of The System

Chapter Viii Hidden Order In Seeming Chaos

Economic Structure Of The Household

Set Of Field Types

Chapter Ix Field Types Of The Green Belt *

Chapter X Division Of Labour And Exchange Of Service

Chapter Xi The Zande Agricultural Year

Chapter Xii The Other Survey Points The Red Belt

Chapter Xiii The Lifetime Of A Homestead Shifting Cultivation

Causes For Abandoning A Homestead

Choosing The New Site

The First Years In The New Place

The Ageing Of A Homestead

Different Types Of Homesteads

Chapter Xiv Bush Fires

Chapter Xv Field Type Succession Overcultivation

Improvisation As A Factor Of Field Distribution

Ecological Limitative Rules As A Factor In Field Type Succession

The Zande Pseudorotations


The Ageing Of A Homestead

Chapter Xvi Changes

1. Mechanisms Of Change

Disaster And Invention

Experimental Fields



New Varieties Leading To New Field Types

New Techniques

2. Changes Under Influence Of Modern Conditions

Anti-erosion Measures

Resettlements And The Breaking Of The Ecological Pattern

Cash Crop Production

Across The Congo Border


3. Other Cultural Changes



Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Shifting cultivation in Africa: the Zande system of agriculture

Published By: Original publisher London: Routledge &Paul. 1956. xxxi, 304 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Pierre de Schlippe

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1999. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Azande (FO07)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Tillage (241); Cereal agriculture (243); Vegetable production (244); Textile agriculture (248); Land use (311); Research and development (654); Annual cycle (221); General tools (412);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is a thorough study of the Azande traditional system of agriculture in terms of its environmental and cultural limitations. The author, an agronomist, with years of field experience in Azandeland, offers detailed descriptions of the ecological setting, soil types, yearly weather cycle and the economic rhythm of Azande life, including the distribution of work and diet among age and sex classes. The first part of the book is confined to reporting the factual field study while the second part is devoted mainly to interpretation and practical suggestions for handling problems of culture change and administration in Azandeland. The author's major thesis is that traditional agriculture is not merely one aspect of Azande culture, but is, in fact, the main part if not synonymous with the total culture in its function of insuring the survival of the group (with its unique way of life) in its habitat. A lengthy 'notes' part at the end of the book includes detailed information on native agricultural practices and methods of storage and processing crops, as additional explanation to the numerous footnotes appearing throughout the text (see pp. 245-291).

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 60

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fo07-060

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: As an aid to the researcher the end diagrams (figs. 16-24) and plates which appear at the end of the book, originally unpaginated, have been paginated by the HRAF as pp. 305-365. Frequent references in the text to these diagrams and plates make this additional pagination practical and necessary. The 'Zande Scheme' of economic development has been indexed for category 645

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1948-1953

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Technical Personnel-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Amal Vinogradov ; John Beierle

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). not specified

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Zande District of Equatoria Province, Sudan

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Zande (African people)


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