Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.
Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records
Culwick, A. T. (Arthur Theodore),
Culwick, G. M., Mrs.
Ubena of the Rivers
Published By: Original publisher
London: G. Allen & Unwin, Ltd.. 1935. 444 p. ill.,
By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication
by A. T. and G. M. Culwick; with a chapter by Mtema Towegale
Kiwanga, and an introduction by Dr. L. H. Dudley Buxton
HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.:
Human Relations Area Files, 2003. Computer File
Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis.
Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF
Traditional history (173);
Informal in-group justice (627);
Territorial hierarchy (631);
Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document
This is a rich ethnography and history of the Ulanga Valley
Bena, covering a variety of subjects, including religion, customary law, property,
agricultural production, mutual aid, bride wealth, family and kin relationships, clan
system, and medicine men. Most of the material was gathered by indigenous researchers and
is written in a clear matter-of-fact style. The Bena first migrated into the highlands of
southern Iringa Region (Njombe District) in early 1800s. In the 1860s some groups migrated
down into the river lands of southwestern Morogoro Region. The ethnographic study focuses
exclusively on the 'Ubena of the Rivers' in Ulanga and Kilombero Districts, Morogoro Region
(see map facing page 152.) Although the oral history refers to royal clans and houses,
according to Swartz, the Bena had political entities no larger than a few villages and
therefore had a tribal organization. The British appointed a paramount chief in the
Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents
Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.
Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs.
Language: Language that the document is written in
Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document
Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data
Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection.
Ian Skoggard ; 2002
Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date).
Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)
Ulanga and Kilombero Districts, Morogoro
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings
Bena (African people)