Culwick, A. T. (Arthur Theodore), 1905-. Ubena of the Rivers

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Ubena of the Rivers

Published By: Original publisher London: G. Allen & Unwin, Ltd.. 1935. 444 p. ill., map

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by A. T. and G. M. Culwick; with a chapter by Mtema Towegale Kiwanga, and an introduction by Dr. L. H. Dudley Buxton

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2003. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Bena (FN31)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Traditional history (173); Art (530); Marriage (580); Family (590); Kinship (600); Informal in-group justice (627); Territorial hierarchy (631); War (720); Sickness (750); Reproduction (840);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is a rich ethnography and history of the Ulanga Valley Bena, covering a variety of subjects, including religion, customary law, property, agricultural production, mutual aid, bride wealth, family and kin relationships, clan system, and medicine men. Most of the material was gathered by indigenous researchers and is written in a clear matter-of-fact style. The Bena first migrated into the highlands of southern Iringa Region (Njombe District) in early 1800s. In the 1860s some groups migrated down into the river lands of southwestern Morogoro Region. The ethnographic study focuses exclusively on the 'Ubena of the Rivers' in Ulanga and Kilombero Districts, Morogoro Region (see map facing page 152.) Although the oral history refers to royal clans and houses, according to Swartz, the Bena had political entities no larger than a few villages and therefore had a tribal organization. The British appointed a paramount chief in the 1926.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fn31-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1931-1933

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Ian Skoggard ; 2002

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1928-1933

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Ulanga and Kilombero Districts, Morogoro Region, Tanzania

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Bena (African people)


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