Grigson, W. V. (Wilfred Vernon), 1896-. The Maria Gonds of Bastar

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part I Introductory. Bastar State And Its Peoples; The Historical, Geographic And Ethnographic Setting Of The Marias

Chapter I The Setting In Time; The Historical Isolation Of Bastar

Chapter Ii The Setting In Space; The Physical And Administrative Geography Of Bastar

Chapter Iii The Ethnological Setting; The Primitive Races Of Bastar

Bhattras And Parjas




Jagdalpur Murias

Jhoria Murias

Gotul Murias, Or Murias Of North Kondagaon And Antagarh


The Marias—general

Hill Marias

Hill Marias Of Indrawati Valley, Influenced By Bison-horn Marias Or Dorla Koitor

Bison-horn Marias, Koyas And Dorlas

Part Ii Personal Appearance And Characteristics

Chapter Iv Personal Appearance; Physical Powers And Endurance; Bodily Attitudes; Cleanliness; Hair-dressing; Dress And Ornaments Of (a) Hill, (b) Bison-horn Marias; Weapons And Tools


Physical Powers And Endurance

Bodily Attitudes



Dress And Ornaments: (a) Hill Maria



Dress And Ornaments: (b) Bison-horn Maria


Weapons And Tools

Hoes (see Figure 4)

Chapter V Character

Part Iii Domestic Life And Economy

Chapter Vi Villages, Houses And Their Contents

A. Hill Maria Villages, Houses And Their Contents

The Shifting Of Villages



The ‘gotul-lon’

B. Bison-horn Maria Villages, Houses, And Their Contents

Shifting Villages


Chapter Vii Agriculture

Systems Of Cultivation

The Cultivator's Year



After Sowing


The New-eating Festivals Of The Hill Marias

Assessment And Payment Of Land Revenue Among The Hill Marias

Methods Of Permanent Cultivation Among The Hill Marias

Bison-horn Maria Cultivation

Chapter Viii Procuring Of Other Food And Drink

A. Food Gathering

B. Hunting And Trapping

Hill Marias

Bison-horn Maria Hunting

C. Domestication Of Animals




Cattle And Buffaloes

Dogs And Cats

Other Pets

D. Fishing

E. Intoxicants And Other Drinks






Other Drinks


Chapter Ix Domestic Life; Miscellaneous

A. Treatment Of Sickness

Maria Treatment Of Disease

B. Manufactures

1. Basketry

2. Iron-work

3. Brass-work

4. Pottery

C. Musical Instruments

1. Drums

2. Gongs

3. Other Instruments

4. Bullroarers

D. Dancing

1. Hill Maria

2. Bison-horn Maria

E. Other Amusements

F. Reckoning Time

G. Daily Routine

H. Fire-making

Part Iv Religion And Magic

Chapter X The Earth, The Clan-god And The Village Mother

General: Previous Writers

Gond Religion Outside Bastar; The Chuddur Penk

The Chuddur Penk Not Known In Bastar

General Nature Of Bastar Maria Cult Of Earth, Clan-god And Village Mother

The Clan-god

Special Features Of The Clan-god Among The Bison-horn Marias

The Village Mother And Other Gods Among The Bison-horn Marias



Chapter Xi The Annual Religious Ceremonies Of The Bison-horn Marias

The Irpu Pandum

The Marka Pandum

The Wijja Pandum, Wijja Weta And Jur Weta


The Kurum Pandum

The Korta Pandum

The Nuka Nordana Pandum

The Jata Pandum

The Kare Pandum

The Bhimul Pandum

The Mandai


Chapter Xii The Cult Of The Departed; Magic And Witchcraft; Omens; Beliefs About The Phenomena Of Nature

A. The Cult Of The Departed

The Future Life

B. Magic And Witchcraft

White Magic

C. Omens

D. Beliefs About Natural Phenomena

Part V Social Organization, Law And Custom

Chapter Xiii Social Organization; The Phratries And Clans

Russell And Hiralal, On The Social Organization Of The Bastar Marias

The Clan Organization Of The Hill Marias

Bison-horn Phratries And Clans

Traditional Origins Of Clan Names

Chapter Xiv Marriage


Cross-cousin Marriage

Hill Maria Regular Betrothal And Marriage

Child Marriage

Serving For A Wife

Bison-horn Maria Betrothal (‘talpana’) And Marriage (‘pendul’)

Irregular Marriages, Widow Marriages And Divorce; Attitude To Abnormalities

Chapter Xv Birth And Childhood

A. Hill Marias




B. Bison-horn Marias

Chapter Xvi Death And Funeral Ceremonies

A. Hill Marias

Treatment Of Abnormal Deaths

B. Bison-horn Marias

Abnormal Deaths

Chapter Xvii Village, Clan And Pargana Authorities And Panchayats; Their Executive Authority; Their Judicial Authority And Methods; Property And Inheritance; Position Of Women; The Recent State Orders Restoring Judicial Authority To Panchayats

The Recent State Order Restoring Jurisdiction To Panchayats

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Maria Gonds of Bastar

Published By: Original publisher London: Oxford University Press. 1949. 22, 427 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by W. V. Grigson ; with an introduction by J. H. Hutton

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Gond (AW32)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Geography (130); Descriptive somatology (142); Personality traits (157); Settlement patterns (361); Hunting and trapping (224); Collecting (222); Tillage (241); Organized ceremonial (796); General character of religion (771); Spirits and gods (776); Burial practices and funerals (764); Clans (614); Sorcery (754); Adolescent activities (883);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This excellent ethnography, by a former member of the Indian Civil Service, describes the culture of two subgroups of the widespread Gond peoples, the relatively unacculturated Hill Marias and the more acculturated Bison Horn Marias, both of Bastar State. The book is divided into five main sections: Introductory, giving the geographical, ethnographical and historical setting of the Maria Gonds; Personal Appearance and Characteristics; Domestic Life and Economy, which includes villages, houses and their contents, agriculture, procuring of food and drink, and domestic life; Religion and Magic, which includes the gods, annual religious ceremonies, and the cult of the departed; and Social Organization and custom, which includes marriage, birth and childhood and death and funeral ceremonies. A number of appendices are included on administrative divisions, clan lists, terms of relationship, names, anthropometry, language, and glossary. Throughout the book, the culture of the Hill Marias is described first, then that of the Bison Horn Marias, with indications as to how the two cultures differ. The Supplement contains a comment by Elwin which includes additional information, mainly on Hill Maria culture; notes on the Maria Gonds of Chanda and Drug District by Grigson; and notes by Elwin on the original edition supplementing or correcting Grigsons material.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. aw32-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Reissued in 1949 with a supplement containing 80 pages of additional matter and 39 illustrations by the author and Verrier Elwin Includes bibliographical references (p. 337-338) Data on the gotul, the adolescents and bachelors dormitory, will be found in category 883. Data on the zamindar, sendhia, and taluq, all administrative divisions, have been filed in category 632.

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1927-1934, 1940-1941

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Government Official-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Timothy J. O'Leary; 1958: John Beierle; 2010

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1927-1941

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Maria Gonds, Bastar State, India

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Gond (Indic people)//Ethnology--India--Bastar//Bastar (India)


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