Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.
Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records
Schram, Louis, 1883-
The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan frontier: Part II. their
Published By: Original publisher
Philadelphia, Pa.: American Philosophical Society. 1957.
By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication
[by] Louis M.J. Schram
HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.:
Human Relations Area Files, 2005. Computer File
Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis.
Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF
Public assistance (746);
General character of religion (771);
Spirits and gods (776);
Prophets and ascetics (792);
Religious denominations (795);
Organized ceremonial (796);
Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document
This monograph is the second of three projected parts of
the study of Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier. Father Schram presents the religious
life of the Monguor in both historical and a structural-functional frame work. The study
covers: (1) the history of the introduction, growth, flourishing and crisis of Lamaism, and
the role of Chinese emperors in the diffusion of Lamaism in Huang-chung, (2) the
organization of Lamaseries, their role in the community, together with the study of
shamanism and the various rites of Monguor religion cults, such as the cult of heaven and
the cult of the dead. The influence of the Monguor Lama upon Lamaism and the life of
Mongour community, and the social function of religion in Mongour life are discussed at the
end of the study. This source is based on local chronicles, the Chinese histories and 'all
available sources' as well as the experiences of Father Schram among the people between
1911 and 1922. The great variety of sects and cults, intensive borrowing between these
sects and cults, and the complexity of the relationship between religious and nonreligious
rites made it difficult for the author to present a clear description of the pattern of
religious life. However, the subject has been extensively studied with remarkable
Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents
Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.
Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs.
Language: Language that the document is written in
Historical records compiled in the Ming and Qing
Dynasties go back to the Mongol period. Most of Schram's discussion takes place in two time
periods: i) the Ming and Qing Dynasties up to the Mongol Revolt of 1723 and ii) the period
after the Revolt to the present (1948). Schram's discussion on Shamanism in the last half
of the book is based on his 10-year period of ethnographic research. Includes
Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document
Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data
Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection.
Hesung Chun Koh ; 1961
Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date).
Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)
Xining Prefecture, Qinghai Province,
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings
Mongour (Chinese people)