Appell, George N.. The ecological and social consequences of conversation to Christianity among the Rungus Dusun of Sabah, Malaysia

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Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The ecological and social consequences of conversation to Christianity among the Rungus Dusun of Sabah, Malaysia

Published in: if part or section of a book or monograph Sociocultural change, development and indigenous peoples, edited by Tan Chee-Beng

Published By: Original publisher Sociocultural change, development and indigenous peoples, edited by Tan Chee-Beng Singapore: Board of Editors, Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography. 1997. 61-99 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication G. N. Appell

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2002. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Rungus Dusun (OC13)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Theoretical orientation in research and its results (121); Topography and geology (133); Flora (137); Tillage (241); Water supply (312); Environmental quality (318); Religious offenses (688); Spirits and gods (776); Religious denominations (795);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document In this article G.N. Appell examines the influence of Christianity on Rungus ecology. Have Christian notions about man's domain over nature affected how the Rungus treat their environment? Appell argues that Christianity has had an indirect effect by undermining the supernatural sanctions and ritual activity that supported ecological conservation. Christianity has given the Rungus a new worldview to cope with the changes wrought by modernization. It also protects the Rungus from the retribution of malevolent spirits, the ROGON. For example, the ROGON would bring sickness to anyone who cut trees in a sacred grove. Rungus Christians now cut down the sacred groves--some, hundreds of acres in extent--with impunity. The result has been a drying of the Rungus environment and loss of game animals. Also the Rungus now sell their domestic animals, which were sacrificed to the ROGON in the past and were an important source of protein. The ROGON were also a sanction against the violation of sexual taboos. Today illicit sexual relations have increased and with it venereal disease.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 7

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. oc13-007

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Essay

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 94-99)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1959-1963, 1986-1992

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Ian Skoggard ; 2000

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1959-1994

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Kudat District, Sabah, Malaysia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Dusun (Bornean people)

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