Ahmed, Akbar S.. Pukhtun economy and society: traditional structure and economic development in a tribal society

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part One Introduction

1 Introduction

I Problem

(a) The Problem

(b) The Problem Restated

Ii Methodology

(a) Method In The Field

(b) Role Of The Field-worker

Iii Theory

Iv Model

2 The Mohmand Ecological And Administrative Framework

I Mohmand Ecology

Ii Administrative Systems And The Mohmand

3 Tribal Society And The Historical Process

I Colonial Encounters And Tribal Strategy

Ii Historical Process And Agnatic Rivalry

Part Two Tribal Models

4 Segmentary Tribes And Models Of Pukhtun Social Organization

I The Tribe

Ii The Pukhtun Ideal-type Model

(a) Pukhtun Ideal-type

(b) Social Diacritica: Diet And Dress

(c) Religious Symbolism Among The Pukhtun

Iii Typology Of Pukhtun Social Organization

5 Lineage And Leadership Organization: Alliance And Conflict

I Unilineal Descent As Organizing Principle In Tribal Society

Ii Leadership And Authority: ‘chiefly’ Model

Iii Tribal Conflict

(a) Intra-lineage Conflict: Case-studies

(b) Inter-clan Conflict: Case-study

6 Non-pukhtun Groups: Patron And Client Relationships

I Sayyeds, Mians And Mullahs: ‘saintly’ Model

(a) Mians

(b) Mullahs

Ii Occupational Groups

7 Pukhto Paradigm

I Tarboorwali: Agnatic Rivalry As Expression Of The Nang Principle

(a) Case-study: Tam

(b) Case-study: Sam

Ii Tor: Female Chastity As Expression Of The Nang Principle

8 Settlement And Domestic Structure

I Ethno-dynamics Of Tribal Settlements: Spatial Mobility And Lineage Politics

Ii Dwa-kora: The Concept Of Dual Residence

Iii Types Of Tribal Settlements

(a) Tam Settlements

(b) Sam Households

Iv Pukhtun Marriages

9 Economic Structure And Lineage Ideology

I The Agricultural Cycle

Ii Income, Consumption And Expenditure

(a) Income, Consumption And Expenditure

(b) Expenditure On Rites De Passage

Iii Mohmand Daily Diaries

Iv Inheritance

V Market Function In The Tribal Economy

(a) Tam Market

(b) The Shops Of Bela Mohmandan

Part Three Encapsulating Systems, Economic Development And Tribal Strategy

10 Encapsulating Systems And Tribal Strategy

I The Role Of The Political Agent In Tribal Society

Ii Encapsulation: Prison And Parliament

(a) Case-study: Prison

(b) Case-study: Parliament 4

Iii Education As A Factor Of Encapsulation

Iv ‘peasantization’ And Perception Of Change In Tribal Groups

(a) ‘peasantization’ Of Tribal Groups

(b) Perception Of Change In Society

11 Economic Development And Encapsulation

I The Mohmand Road As A Factor Of Encapsulation

Ii Economic Development: Penetration And Emigration

(a) Development Schemes

(b) Emigration

Iii The Bela Mohmandan Cooperative Society: Lineage Politics And Development Schemes

12 Conclusion

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Pukhtun economy and society: traditional structure and economic development in a tribal society

Published By: Original publisher London ; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1980. 16, 406 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Akbar Salahudin Ahmed

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2002. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Pashtun (AU04)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Ethics (577); Ingroup antagonisms (578); Public welfare (657); Territorial hierarchy (631); Warfare (726); External relations (648); Lineages (613); Cultural identity and pride (186); Dwellings (342); Standard of living (511); Nuclear family (594); Extended families (596); Education system (871); Peacemaking (728); Gender status (562); Legal norms (671); Cousins (605); Tribe and nation (619);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document In this work the author attempts to construct an ideal-type model of Pashtun society based primarily on his field work and the ideal code of the Pashtuns called the pukhtunwali, which revolves around agnatic rivalry (tarboorwali) and the preservation of the honor of women (tor). Pashtun society confers honor and status on its members through acts approximating how closely one can come to achieving these ideals. According to Ahmed, adherence to the ideal code of pukhtunwali is greatest in Pashtun society when interaction with larger state systems (e.g., Pakistan or Afghanistan) is minimal and when that segment of the society is located in an economically poor geographic zone. To test this hypothesis the author compares Tribal Area Mohmands (TAM) representing the ideal (nang) society with the Settled Area Mohmand (SAM) who represent the encapsulated (qalang) or acculturated element. The detailed comparisons of these two societal units make up the greater part of this source. In addition to the above, information will also be found in this source on social organization, lineages, patron and client relations,settlements and domestic structure, marriage, economics, income, inheritance, education, and markets.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. au04-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 379-397)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1972-1977

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist, Government Official-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1987

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). mid-nineteenth century - 1970s

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Mohmand Pashtun, Mohmand Agency and Peshwar District, northwestern Pakistan

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Pushtuns


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