"Manus" refers to residents of the Papua New Guinea province of Manus. Manus Province includes the main island of Manus (an island 272 km north-northeast of the mainland of Papua New Guinea) and offshore islands. The Manus language family contains scores of distinct languages; although many people know several Manus languages much of the communication between groups is in Melanesian pidgin. Sociopolitical life is organized on the village and patriclan level.
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Papua New Guinea
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Documents referred to in this section are included in the eHRAF collection and are referenced by author, date of publication, and eHRAF document number.
There are 14 documents in the Manus file. The dates covered in the documents in this file are from 1870 to 1992. A major contributor was the American anthropologist Margaret Mead (1901-1978), who conducted fieldwork on the island in 1928-1929 and again in 1953. Her main monographs are on personality development (Mead 1930, no. 1) and a follow-up study, 25 years later, on the same subject (Mead 1956, no. 2). Other works by Mead focus on kinship (Mead 1934, no. 4), animism and children's thought (Mead 1932, no. 5), trade and exchange (Mead 1930, no. 7), and a general introduction to Manus culture and society (Mead 1937, no. 6.) Fortune (1935, no. 3) wrote a major monograph on the Manus religion. Carrier wrote two monographs on the traditional and modern Manus economies (Carrier 1991, no. 8; 1989, no. 9.) Schwartz also writes about the traditional economy of the region (Schwartz 1963, no. 11.) Gustafsson (1993, no. 10) wrote his doctoral dissertation on Manus leadership. Otto (1998, no. 12) examines the life of one particular leader, Paliau Maloat, and the history of the movement he led (Otto 1992, no. 13.) Romanucci-Ross (1969, no. 14) examines Manus medical treatment.
For more detailed information on the content of the individual works in the file, see the abstracts in the citations preceding each document.
This culture summary is from the article, "Manus," by James G. Carrier, in the Encyclopedia Of World Cultures, Oceania, Vol. 2. pp. 173-176. 1991. Terence E. Hays, Ed. Boston, Mass.: G. K. Hall & Co. Population figures were updated by Ian Skoggard, December 2004. Indexing notes were written by John Beierle and Ian Skoggard in April, 2004, and the synopsis was written by Ian Skoggard in December, 2004.
ASI-FZ, FZD, FMZD, etc.-categories 601 and 602
KAHU-return prestations-category 431
KAMAL-patrilineal property-owning group, men's house-categories 344, 423 and 613
KANSOLAS-village head-category 622
KAWAS-trading partners-categories 437, 438, and 571
KEN SIS-cognatic stocks, clans-category 614
KOWUN-totem, matrilineal group-category 613
LAPAN-leader, rich man-categories 550, 613
LOM PEIN-line of the women, matrilneage-category 613
LON KAMAL-line of the men, patrilineage-category 613
Long Story of God-religious text-category 779
LOTU-church-categories 794, 795, and 797
LULAI-village leader-categories 622 and 631
MOEN PAHT-ancestral spirit-categories 775, 776, and 769
Noise-phenomenon around second cargo cult-category 781
SAHAI-prestations to kamals-categories 431 and 613
TALIS-house community-categories 596 and 613
TAMA-F, FB, FZS, FMZS-categories 601 and 602
TAMATU-see ASI and TAMA
TJINAL-stand for ancestral skull-category 778
WIN NEISEN-name of God and a politicoreligious movement-categories 185, 668, 776, and 795