Bulag, Uradyn Erden. Nationalism and hybridity in Mongolia

Table of Contents

Publication Information

1 Introduction: Situating Hybridity

An Erliiz 1 Anthropologist And Greater Mongolia

Historical Overview

Buryats And Hamnigans Of Dashbalbar And Dadal Sum S

2 The Creation Of Ethnicity And Nationalism In Twentieth-century Mongolia


Building A ‘socialist Mongolian Nation’ And The Vocabulary Of Ethnicity

Separating Religion From The State

Revolution In A Feudal Country?

Modern Mongolian ‘tribalism’

Socialist ‘feudal’ Structure And Problems Of Social Cohesion

Conditions For Fostering Nationalism: Economic Disintegration


3 Ethno-politics In Mongolia


The Halh: From Marginality To Centrality

The Buryats: Pan-mongolism And Marginalization

Who Are The Real Mongols? Settling An Old Score Between The Oirats And The Halh

The Flight Of The Kazakhs From Mongolia

4 Problems Of Biological Reproduction And The Mongolian Crisis Of Confidence


‘ Something Wrong With Reproduction? ’

Reproduction Processes As Seen By The Mongols

Culture To The Rescue

The Mongol Concept Of Incest Prohibition

Social Transformation: A Historical Picture Of Mongol Kinship

Socialist ‘loss-of-kinship’ And The ‘revival Of Kinship’ In A Market Economy

Reviving The ‘tradition’: A Buryat Case


5 The Discourse Of Race In Mongolia


Erliiz, The Threshold People

Marriage Strategies: Mongol Men And Foreign Women

Women, Erliiz, And Mongolian Nationalism

Erliiz : Revealing Traits Of The Father

Erliiz, ‘surnames’, And Politics

The Role Of Rumours In Mongolian Politics


6 Inner Mongols As ‘other’ To Mongols


The Conflicting Concepts Of Homeland

Naming And Categorizing

An Ethnography Of The Rejection Of The Inner Mongols

Man And Animal Versus Culture And Nature

Dialectics Of Food And Faeces

Dialogue Of Mutton, Milk, Pork, And Vegetables

Conclusion: Inner Mongols As A Mirror

7 The Choice Of National Symbols: Reinitiating A Nation-state

Dominant Symbols

Traditional Symbols And The Invention Of Tradition

State Symbols In The Socialist Period

Democracy, Nationalism, And Change Of Symbols

Names Of Constitution And State

Emblem, Flag, And Seal


8 Conclusion: Nationalism And Hybridity

Sexuality, Nationalism, And Hybridity

What Does It Mean To Be A Hybrid?

The Future Of Hybrids

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Nationalism and hybridity in Mongolia

Published By: Original publisher Oxford ; New York: Clarendon Press ; Oxford University Press. 1998. xv, 302 p. ill., map

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Uradyn E. Bulag

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2006. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mongolia (AH01)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Cultural identity and pride (186); Ethnic stratification (563); Tribe and nation (619); Form and rules of government (642); External relations (648); Disabilities (732); Ideas about nature and people (820);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is a study of modern Mongolian identity by an author of mixed Mongolian-Chinese parentage from Inner Mongolia. On a trip to Mongolia, Bulag encountered prejudice by locals, who considered him Chinese, not Mongolian. This personal experience prompted this study. Bulag examines the difference and tension between a narrow subethnic-based nationalism and a more open, pan-Mongolianism, and how past political history, current geopolitics, and socialist and capitalist development have influenced both types of identity. He discusses how under Soviet-sponsored socialist development, the Hahl ethnic group became institutionalized as the authentic Mongolian identity, thus marginalizing all other Mongolian ethnic groups in the country. Bulag also discusses the racialization of Mongol identity evident in the public discourse on the Mongolian blue spot, perceived rise in the incidence of mental retardation, and use of the category of 'half-breed' (ERLIIZ) to describe Inner Mongolians. Bulag argues that in the past, hybrid groups were able to form their own clans and thereby remain part of the tribe. However, no equivalent mechanism exists today. Invoking the work of Salman Rushdie, Bulag advocates for the future of a hybrid Inner Mongolian identity, one situated between Mongolia's racialized identity and China's Han-centric Chinese identity.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 18

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ah01-018

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. [274]-296) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1991-1992

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnographer-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Ian Skoggard ; 2005

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1990-1992

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, China

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mongolia


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