Far Eastern and Russian Institute of the University of Washington. Mongolian People's Republic (Outer Mongolia)

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1a Sociological Background General Character Of The Society

Factors Forming Mongolian Society


Today's Mongols

The Yurt

The Buddhist Church

The Regime And The Arat

Suggested Readings For Subparagraph La, “general Character Of The Society”

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1b Sociological Background Historical Setting

The Western Mongols

The Southern Mongols

The Northern Mongols

The Buryats

Periods Of Mongolian History

Russia And The Mongols

China (and The Manchus) And The Mongols (see Inner Mongolian Handbook)

Japan And The Mongols

The Progressive Decline Of The Mongols

Subparagraph 1b Historical Setting Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1b 1 Sociological Background The Geographical Setting


The Altai Mountain Region

The Great Lakes Basin

The Khangai-khentei Region

The Elevated Plains Of Eastern Mongolia

The Gobi Region



Subparagraph 1b 1 Geographical Setting Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1c, Sociological Background Size And Geographical Distribution Of Population

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1d Sociological Background Ethnic Groups

The Mongols

The Turks

The Tungus

Subparagraph 1d Ethnic Groups Suggested Readings

Subparagraph 1e Languages

Languages Of The Mongolian People's Republic

The Khalkha-mongolian Language Today

Relation Of The Khalkha And Buryat Languages

Classification Of Mongolian Languages

History Of The Mongolian Language

Subparagraph 1e Languages Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1f, Sociological Background Social Structure

The Nobility





Other Social Groups

The Religious Society And Class Structure

The Relationship Of Subject Groups And Ruling Groups

Political Organization And Class Structure

Economic Status And Class Structure

Social Mobility


Class Structure In Contemporary Mongolia Introduction

Plan Of The Government.

Process Of Change



“white Collar” Workers

Factors Influencing Class Structure


Subparagraph 1f Social Structure Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1g Sociological Background Family

Kinship Groupings

History Of The Clan Organization

The Family


The Family And The Khoton

Interpersonal Relationships

Role Of Women

Family As A Social Unit

Subparagraph 1g Family Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1h, Sociological Background Social Values And Patterns Of Living


Characteristic Ways Of Life

Social Relationships

Relationships Between The Mongols And Foreigners

Man's Relationship To The Supernatural


Subparagraph 1h Social Values And Patterns Of Living Suggested Readings

Annex “a,” Subparagraph 1i Sociological Background Artistic And Intellectual Expression

A. Literature And Folklore

Modern Mongolian Literature

B. Music

C. Dramatic Arts: The Tsam; Theater And Cinema In The Mongolian People's Republic.

D. The Fine Arts

E. Intellectual Expression

Subparagraph 1i Artistic And Intellectual Expression Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1 J Sociological Background Education


Organization Of The School System

Teacher Training

The Government And The Schools

Evaluation Of The School System

Subparagraph Lj Education Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1k, Sociological Background Religion

The Organization Of The Lamaist Church



Lamaist Beliefs, Religious Practices And Superstitions

Attitude Of The Government Toward Religion

Subparagraph Lk Religion Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 11, Sociological Background Public Information

Means Of Communication And Public Information

Radio, Telephone And Telegraph

Newspapers And Other Publications

Printing Facilities

Stage And Motion Pictures


Subparagraph 11 Public Information Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1m Sociological Background Labor Force

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1n Sociological Background Forced Labor

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1o, Sociological Background Labor Relations And Organization

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1p, Sociological Background Health And Sanitation

Subparagraph Lp Health And Sanitation Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1q Sociological Background Public Welfare

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 1r Sociological Background Attitudes And Reactions Of The People

Subparagraph 1r Attitudes And Reactions Of The People Suggested Readings

Bibliography Of Works Cited In Sociological Section

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 2 Political Background Introduction Modern Political History Of Outer Mongolia

Establishment Of People's Democracy

Purges And Counter-purges

Subparagraph Modern Political History Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 2a And 2b Political Background Constitutional System And Structure Of Government

Subparagraph 2a Constitutional System Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 2c Political Background Political Dynamics


Subparagraph 2c Political Dynamics Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 2d Political Background Public Order And Safety

Civil Police

Political Police




Annex “a”, Subparagraph 2e Political Background Foreign Policies

Subparagraph 2e Foreign Policies Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 2f Political Background Subversive Potentialities

The Struggle Against The Buddhist Religion

Ethnic Antagonisms

Mongolian Nationalism And The Soviet Union

Tensions Between The Government And The People

Subparagraph 2f Subversive Potentialities Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 2g, Political Background Propaganda

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 2h Political Background Biographies Of Key Personalities

A. Incumbent Government And Party Functionaries

B. Former Government And Party Functionaries

C. Personalities Under The Autonomous Regime (1911–1921).

Bibliography Of Works Cited In Political Section

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 3a Economic Background Livestock Breeding And Agricultural Potential

Part A — Livestock-breeding

The Stockbreeding Economy Before 1921.

1. Nature And Origins

2. The Technique Of Nomadic Stockbreeding.

3. The Pasturage Cycle. *

4. Regional Variation In The Pasturage Cycle.

5. Livestock — Types, Weights And Productivity.

6. The Size And Distribution Of Herds.

7. Alba, Urton Service, Liabilities To Authority.

8. Property Relationships, Ownership, And Indebtedness. Income Differentials

9. Conclusions.

The Stockbreeding Economy After 1921.

1. Soviet Policy Toward Outer Mongolian Economic Development And Toward Nomadism.

2. Outer Mongolian Governmental Policy Towards Stockbreeding.

A. Institutional Change.

A. Redistribution, Income Differentials.

B. Mutual Aid And The Khoton.

C. Settlement

D. Taxes, Procurements, Obligations To Authority.

E. Improving Stockbreeding In The Arat Sector.

3. Government Influences On The Arat.

4. How Successful Have The Policies Been?

5. The Future

General Conclusions

Estimated Livestock Totals And Distribution For 1950

Subparagraph 3a Livestock — Breeding

Agricultural Potential

Regional Climatic Limitations On Crop Cultivation

Summary Of Moisture-temperature Relationships

Topographic And Soil Limitations

Summary Of Factors Restricting Cultivable Area

Evaluation Of Estimates Of Cultivable Area

Crop Production Practices And Techniques

Small-scale Subsistence Crop Production

Large-scale Commercial Crop Production

Crop Production Practises Common To Both The Goskhozes And Arat-chinese Sector

Crop Production Since 1921


Annex “a”, Subparagraph 3b, Economic Background Industrial Potential

1. A Brief History Of Industry In Outer Mongolia.


2. The Contemporary Industrial Picture In Outer Mongolia

The Ministry Of Industry. *

The Choibalsan Industrial Combine

The State Construction Trust

The Printing Industry

The Power Combine

Metal Working

Khatkhyl Wool-washing Plant

Other Industry


The Coal Industry

The Ministry Of Food

Other Ministries

Statistical Material On Mongolian Industry

Components Of Gross Output

Capital Investment

Yearly Output Per Worker


Subparagraph 3b Industrial Potential Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 3c, Economic Background Taxation

The Budget

Taxes: Introduction

Early History

The Reforms Of 1925–1927 And “left Wing Excesses” Of 1928–1932

Development Of The Present System Of Taxes: Fiscal Conformity With The Ussr.

Postwar Developments

Rationale And Evaluation Of Tax Structure

Budget Expenditures

Subparagraph 3c Trade Suggested Readings

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 3d Economic Background Banking And Currency System

Annex “a”, Subparagraph 3e Economic Background Trade

Untitled Section: ...

1. Introductory


2. Trade Centers And Areas

3. Chinese Trade With The Mongols

4. Russian Trade With The Mongols

5. Other Countries' Trade With The Mongols

6. Summary And Conclusions

After 1921

7. The Establishment Of The Soviet Monopoly Of Mongolian Trade.

8. Value Data On Totals Of Imports And Exports

9. Other Data On Imports And Exports

10. The Terms Of Trade

11. Exports

12. Imports

13. The Importance Of Russo-mongolian Trade

14. Current Organization Of Soviet-mongol Trade.

15. Conclusions

Domestic Trade

1. The Present Trading System

2. The Growth Of Cooperatives

3. The Growing Role Of Domestic Industry In Retail Trade.

4. The Growth Of Retail Trade.


Annex “a”, Subparagraph 3f Economic Background Transportation

Transport Before 1921

Transport After 1921

A. Surface Transport — Automotive

B. Surface Transport — Rail

C. Surface Transport — Water

D. Air Transport


Subparagraph 3f Transportation Suggested Readings

Bibliography Of Works Cited In Economic Section

A. Chronology

B. Glossary

Mongolian Words

Russian And Other Foreign Words

C. Constitution (fundamental Law) Of The Mongolian People's Republic

Chapter I Social Organization

Chapter Ii The Organization Of The State

Chapter Iii The Great People's Khural

Chapter Iv The Presidium Of The Great People's Khural

Chapter V The Council Of Ministers Of The Mongolian People's Republic

Chapter Vi Local Organs Of State Authority

Chapter Vii The Courts And The Prosecutor's Office

Chapter Viii The Budget Of The Mongolian People's Republic

Chapter Ix The Electoral System Of The Mongolian People's Republic

Chapter X Fundamental Rights And Duties Of Citizens

Chapter Xi Arms, Flag, Capital

Chapter Xii Procedure For Amending The Constitution Of The Mongolian People's Republic

Statutes Of The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party *

Division 1 The Members Of The Party

Division Ii Obligations And Rights Of Members Of The Party

Division Iii The Bases Of Party Organization

Division Iv Higher Party Organs

Division V Aimak And City Party Organizations

Division Vi Primary Party Organizations

Division Vii Party Organizations In The Mpra And The Forces Of The Mvd

Division Viii Party Direction Of Non-party Organizations

Division Ix Party Direction Of Revsomol [revolutionary Youth League]

Division X Financial Means Of The Party

D. The Financial System Of The Mongolian People's Republic

I. The Unified Budget

Structure Of The Budget

Size And Significance Of The Unified Budget.

Ii. Budget Expenditures *

Expenditure Categories

Trends In Total Expenditures.

Trends In Relative Expenditures.

Iii. Budget Revenues

Present Structure Of Taxes

Brief History Of Taxes And Tax Structure

Taxes In Kind

Rationale And Evaluation Of The Tax System

Iv. Money, Banking, And Fiscal Policy

Mongolian Finance Before The Currency Reform Of 1925

The Mongolbank And The Currency Reform Of 1925.

Developments In Banking After 1928.

A Suggested Framework For Analyzing Financial Policy. *

Analysis Of The Mongolian Financial Accounts.


Sources And Notes To Tables 1

Sources And Notes On Budget Expenditures Of Mongolian People's Republic 1921 – 1930

Sources And Notes On Budget Expenditures 1931 – 1939

Sources And Notes — Budget Expenditures 1940 – 1945

Sources And Notes — Budget Expenditures 1946 – 1953

Sources And Notes On State Revenues Mongolian People's Republic 1922 – 1930

Sources And Notes On State Revenues Mongolian People's Republic 1931 – 1939

Sources And Notes On State Revenues Mongolian People's Republic 1940 – 1945

Sources And Notes On State Revenues Mongolian People's Republic 1946 – 1953

Buryat-mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Supplement

Untitled Section: ...

Historical Setting The Buryats At The Time Of The Russian Conquest 17th Century

I. The Buryat Tribes Of The 17th And 18th Centuries

Ii. The Russian Conquest Of The Buryat Country

Iii. The Economic Life Of The Buryats

Iv. The Relations Of The Buryats And Their Weaker Neighbors.

V. The Relations Between The Buryats And Mongols

Speranskii Reforms

Soviet Period

Population And Ethnic Groups


Ethnic Groups

Physical Features

Buryat Social Organization


Tribal Organization

Clan Organization




The Kinship System And Social Organization

Clan Organization Since The 17th Century





Interpersonal Relationships Within The Family

Interpersonal Relationships Outside The Family

Buryat Class System


Slave Class

Pre Russian Period


Russian Period

Soviet Period

Buryat Dress

Buryat Housing

Buryat Religion

Buryat-mongolian Supplement

Languages Of The Buryat-mongolian Republic

Buryat Culture

Literature And Folklore

Modern Buryat Literature

Buryat Music

Buryat Script And Literacy

Buryat Publications And Public Information

Buryat Education

Buryat Culture

The Buryat Intelligentsia


Bibliography Of Works Employed

Untitled Section: ...

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Mongolian People's Republic (Outer Mongolia)

Published By: Original publisher New Haven, Conn.: Printed by the Human Relations Area Files. 1956. 3 vols. (2, 12, 1045; 59, 158; 4, 1130 p. : maps) [HRAF repagination 2, 12, 1387 p.]

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Far Eastern and Russian Institute of the University of Washington

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2006. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mongolia (AH01)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Culture summary (105); History (175);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This handbook, prepared by the Far Eastern and Russian Institute of the University of Washington under contract to the Human Relations Area Files, consists of a series of articles prepared by area specialists covering a wide range of topics. Although the material has been prepared from secondary sources, coverage of subject matter is thorough and exacting. The source is divided into three major divisions dealing each in its turn with the sociological, political and economic aspects of Outer Mongolian culture and society from early historic times up to 1956. The table of contents in vol. 1 pp. vii-xi, will help to orient the researcher to the wide spectrum of cultural data to be found in each of the major divisions. It is interesting to note that in contrast to Inner Mongolia in which Chinese acculturative influences are particularly strong, Outer Mongolia, on the other hand leans heavily towards the Soviet Union.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 13

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ah01-013

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Collection

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: The final section of this document, pp. 1271-1387, deals exclusively with the Buryat-Mongolian A.S.S.R. and has been indexed for that collection.

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document No date

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Social Scientist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1974

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1910-1957

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Mongolia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mongolia--History


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