Lewis, I. M.. Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar, and Saho

Table of Contents

Publication Information

The Somali, Afar (danakil) And Saho

General Introduction


1. The Somali

Tribal Groupings And Demography

Location: Neighbouring Tribes



The Somali And Sab; Tribal-families And Confederacies

The Agnatic Structure Of The Somali And Sab

The Darod

The Ishaak

The Dir

The Pre-hawiya

The Hawiya Jiambelle 18 19

The Sab

The Rahanwein

Negroid And Other Extraneous Peoples

Swahili-speaking Coastal Peoples

The Delimitation Of Territory: Tribal Boundaries

History Of Tribal Movement 35

1. The Arabian Component

2. Racial History


Population Statistics 53

Non-territorial Groups

The Outcaste Sab 1

Traditions Of Origin Of The Sab

Untitled Section: ...

Physical Environment

Relief 1

Drainage System

(a) Northern Drainage System

(b) Southern Drainage System


(a) Northern Region

(b) Southern Regions


1. British Somaliland 19

2. Somalia 21



French Somaliland

British Somaliland


French Somaliland

British Somaliland 47


Main Features Of Economy

Livestock 1



Sheep And Goats



Traditional Cultivation

Other Economic Activities

Staple Foods


Hunting 75

Division Of Labour



Artisan And Guild Organizations


External Trade

Trends Of Economic Change And Development

Press And Radio




Mats And Fibre Vessels





Social Organization And Political Structure


1. The Tribe As A Territorial Unit


Seasonal Movements

Transhumance And Cultivation

Tribal Territory And Water-rights

The Tribe As A Political Unit


The Office Of Chief

Criteria Of Appointment Of The Tribal Chief

Investiture Of The Harti “sultan”

The Tribal Practice Of Religion

3. The Unity Of The Tribe In War And Feud


Legal Procedure

1. Homicide (dill). 55

2. Physical Injury (gar). 73

3. Moral Injury.

4. Marriage And The Tribe

The Agnatic Foundation Of Somali Society



The Rer

Fission And Fusion

Adoption And The Sab

Administration And Government

French Somaliland

British Somaliland

The Italian Trusteeship

Local Administration

Central Administration 87

Political Parties

Judicial Process


The Position Of Women

Main Cultural Features

Mental Characteristics

Physical Characteristics

Dress And Ornaments







Marriage (aros)


Death And Burial


Islam In Somaliland

Historical Introduction 1

The Sufi Dervish Orders

Tariqa And Jama’a

The Internal Organization Of The Jama’a Settlement


The Cult Of The Saint

The Position Of The Dervish Congregations (jama’a) In The Social Structure

Adoption And Status Of Tariqa And Jama’a

The Position Of The Wadad

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar, and Saho

Published By: Original publisher London: International African Institute. 1955. ix, 200 p. ill., maps [incomplete]

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by I. M. Lewis

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1997. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Somali (MO04)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is an important work on the Somali. Sections are included on demography, physical environment, economics, socio-political organization, the life-cycle, material culture, religion, etc. There is an exhaustive bibliography. Lewis, a British social anthropologist, wrote this survey before going to Somalia; it contains, therefore, none of his own field data.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. mo04-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 177-189) and index Pages omitted from the files: 1-10, 155-176, 190-194

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document no date

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-4

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. James R. Leary ; 1959

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). not specified

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Somalia, Djibouti, southeastern Ethiopia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Somalis


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