Handy, E. S. Craighill (Edward Smith Craighill), 1892-. The native culture in the Marquesas

Table of Contents

Publication Information

The Native Culture In The Marquesas


Environment And History

The Islands


Traditional Evidence Of Settlement

Evidence Of Genealogies

First Inhabitants And Places Of Settlement

Later Immigration And Emigration

Unity Of The Group

Summary Of Evidence

Tribal Relationships

Dual Political Divisions

Hiva Oa (la Dominica)

Tahu Ata (santa Christina)

Fatu Hiva (magdalena)

Ua Huka (washington Island)

Ua Pou (adams Island)

Nuku Hiva (marchand Or Madison Island)

Uninhabited Islands

The Tribe

General Discussion Of The Social Order

Leaders And Professionals

The Ka'ioi

Community Structures

Chief And Chiefess

Manner Of Becoming A Chief

The Chief's Domestic Establishment

The Chief's Family

The Chief's Servants


Dress And Insignia

Family Alliances


Personal Tapu

Rôle Of The Chief In Tribal Worship

Administration Of Tribal Affairs

Authority Of The Chief

Professionals And Executives


Personal Retaliation


Ownership By The Chief

Temporary Restrictions (kahui)

Personal Property

The Family And The Individual

The Dwelling And Adjuncts

The Sleeping House

The Fata'a

The Cook House

The Sacred Place

Other Adjuncts To Dwellings

Personal Relationships And Relationship Terms

Birth And Infancy

Birth Rites

Announcement Of Birth

Birth Feast

Erection Of Shrine For Child

Treatment Of Infants

The First-born

Position And Rights

The Fa'e Kaha Rite

Provision For The First-born

Instruction Of The First-born


Terms And Conventions

Purpose Of Adoption

Adoption Rites For Chiefs

Names And Naming

Personal Names

Assuming New Names

Tapu Names And Nicknames

Exchanging Names

Various Rites Of Childhood And Youth

Piercing The Ears

Purifying The Hands

Presentation Of The Child At Its First Feast

Rites Of Adolescence


Marriage And Relationship Between The Sexes

Secondary Mates

Formal Betrothal And Marriage Rites

Celibacy And Perverted Instincts



Memorial Feasts

Funeral Chanting

Funeral Rites For Chiefs And Priests

Treatment Of Dead Bodies

Offerings Placed With The Body

Destruction Of Property

Coffins And Biers

Disposal Of Bones

Sacred Places Of Sepulture

Taha Tupapa'u


Descriptions Of Sepulchral Places By Early Visitors


Tribal Relationships

Causes Of War

Organized Warfare

War Leaders And Fighters

The Warrior's House

The Warriors' Dress


War Rites


Captives Of War

Tapu Governing Warriors

Tapu Governing Women In Wartime

Simpler Warfare


Canoes For Raids

Treatment Of Captives Taken In Raids

Torture Of Captives

Captives As War Prizes

Curse On Captors


Forts And Places Of Refuge


The Terms Hana And Tuhuna

Ways Of Becoming A Tuhuna

Tuhuna As A Class

Characteristic Features Of All Industry




The House Platform

The House

Canoes And Canoe Making

Process Of Manufacture


Types Of Canoes

Materials For Canoes

Parts Of A Canoe 6 A

Ornamentation Of Canoes


Ownership Of Canoes


Minor Industries



Other Home Industries


Gods Of Fishing And Religious Rites

Tapu And Inauspicious Influences

Fishing Festivals

Fishing Paraphernalia And Methods

Deep-sea Fishing At Atu Ona

Fishing At Pua Ma'u

Special Methods Of Fishing

Turtle Fishing

Kaoa Fishing

Shark Fishing

Catching Octopus

Spearing The Ray

Porpoise Hunting

Bonito And Kuavena Fishing

Catching Paoko And Flying Fish

Catching Eels

Catching Shellfish

Fish Poisoning

Fishing Terminology 11

Bird Catching

Cultivation Of Food

Plants Cultivated

Preparation Of Food And Rotation Of Menus 13

The Making Of Ma—stored Breadfruit


Other Breadfruit Dishes

Dishes Accompanying Breadfruit

Vegetable, Fruit, And Nut Dishes

Additional Culinary Terms



The Feast Place

The Celebration Of The Festival

Terminology Of Festivals

Betrothal Festivals

Marriage Festivals

Memorial Festivals

Deification Festivals

Memorial Festivals For Priests

Koika Oke

Ko'ika Vaihopu

Ko'ika U'upua

Harvest Festivals

Cannibalistic Feasts

Tattooing Festivals

Other Festivals


The Tribal Inspirational Priest—tau'a

Inspiration Of A Tau'a

The Sanctity Of A Tau'a

Private Life Of A Tau'a

Costume Of A Tau'a

Death And Deification Of A Tau'a

The Ceremonial Priest—tuhuna O'ono

Temple Assistants

Sacred Precincts And Their Ceremonial Uses

The Inspirational Priest's House

Feia'u And Shrines

Ceremonial Appurtenances


Altars And Offerings

Human Sacrifice

Obtaining Victims

Tapu Before Offering Human Sacrifice

Rites At Time Of Human Sacrifice


Gods Of Creation

Departmental Gods

Tutelary Deities


Spirits Of Human Beings

Journey Of The Spirit To The Spirit World

The Spirit World

The Sky World

Evil Spirits


Vehine Hae

Etua Hae


Tapu Of Sacredness

Sacredness Of Persons

Sacredness Of Things

Making Tapu

Seasonal And Ceremonial Tapu

Consecrated Activity

Tapu Associated With Women

Tapu Associated With Death

Food Restrictions

Punishment For Infringement Of Tapu


Supposed Causes Of Disease

Native Maladies

Treatment Of Disease

Divination Of The Cause Of Sickness

Medico-magical Remedies



Presages Of Death


The Practice Of Sorcery

Spells For Revenge

Spells For Protection

Transference Of A Spell

Removal Of A Spell

Protection Against Spells



Dress And Personal Adornment

Men's Loin Cloths

Women's Waist Cloths



Ornaments Made Of Hair


Ear Ornaments


Styles Of Hair Dressing

Anointing, Staining, And Painting Of The Body

Other Adornments

Descriptions Of Dress By Early Visitors

Sports And Games

Stilt Walking


Sham Battles

Boxing And Trials Of Strength

Water Sports

Children's Games

Other Games 17

Kai Patu

A Genealogical Game

String Figures 18


Ancient Dancing

Modern Dancing

Hoki Troupes

Musical Instruments


Mouth Flute

Nose Flute

Other Small Musical Instruments


The Creation Chants

The Pu'e

The Tona-pou Chant

The Vavana Chant

The Ti'e-mata And Faufau-oa

Other Sacred Chants

The Aumeha

The Pope Chant

Funerary Chants

The Uta Chant

The Nato Chant

War Chants

Honorific Chants

The Rari And Ru'u Chants

The Tape'a Chant

The Pipine Chat

The Putu Chant

The Pehi Chant

Pu'ukeha And I'i

The Komumu Chant

Chants As Spells

Miscellaneous Chants


Chanting Of Genealogies

Genealogy Of Nature

Genealogy Of Moons

Time Reckoning

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The native culture in the Marquesas

Published By: Original publisher Honolulu: The Museum. 1923. v, 358 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by E. S. Craighill Handy

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Marquesas (OX06)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Traditional history (173); Tribe and nation (619); Status of children (858); Adoption (597); Ceremonial during infancy and childhood (852); Agriculture (240); Prayers and sacrifices (782); Spirits and gods (776); Sacred objects and places (778); (535534); Literary texts (539); Organized ceremonial (796);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This work by a professional ethnologist constitutes the major source on the culture of the Marquesas. While much of the former culture has disappeared, Handy, by utilizing the memories of aged informants and the early accounts of travelers, has been able to reconstruct the culture as it existed in the past. Although the book deals primarily with these data, some information is included on the modern inhabitants of the Marquesas. The book contains information on material culture, social organization, political structure, warfare, life cycle, religions, and subsistence patterns. Many of the passages used by the author to illustrate given points are credited by the author to Ralph Linton, who accompanied the author in the capacity of archaeologist. There is a lengthy errata sheet on page v.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ox06-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: 'Bayard Dominick expedition. Publication number 9.' Includes bibliographical references (p. 356-357)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1920-1921

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. James R. Leary ; 1959: John Beierle; 2010

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1920-1921

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Ethnology--French Polynesia--Marquesas Islands


Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the links below to export the citation to your chosen bibliographic manager.

Export a Citation