Malkki, Liisa H. (Liisa Helena). Purity and exile: violence, memory, and national cosmology among Hutu refugees in Tanzania

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Introduction An Ethnography Of Displacement In The National Order Of Things

The Hutu In Exile

Classification And Liminality: On Being Out Of Category In Anthropology And In The National Order Of Things

Refugees, Humanism, And History

One Historical Contexts, Social Locations: A Road Map

Background To Genocide

The Hutu In Tanzania: Two Fieldwork Sites



Fieldwork Conditions

Two The Mythico-history

Representing A Mythico-history

The Scope And Progression Of The Mythico-historical Themes

First Cluster Of Themes: Foundation Myths And The Golden Age Of Innocence; The Importance Of Autochthony; And The Mythico-historical Location Of The “aboriginal” Twa

Myths Of Foundation And Precedence

The Uses Of A “tutsi Version” Of The Foundation Myth

Second Cluster Of Themes: The Arrival Of The Tutsi By Stealth; From The Gift Of Cows Into Servitude; From Abantu To Hutu

From Abantu To Hutu

Third Cluster Of Themes: The Colonial Government As A Protector Of Hutu And A Moderator Of Evil; Francophone “civilization” As Benign Knowledge; The Blockage From Education

Fourth Cluster Of Themes: Bodily Traits, Essential Character, And Contrasting Forms Of Innate Power

The Heroization Of Hutu Physical Labor And The Attribution Of Tutsi Parasitism

Fifth Cluster Of Themes: The Mixing Of Categories; Hutu-tutsi Intermarriage

Sixth Cluster Of Themes: Apocalypse And Accounts Of Atrocity

Key Themes Of Atrocity Accounts

Why Not Bullets? Secrecy From Outsiders And The Disposal Of Bodies

“reasons” For The Massacre

The Exploding Of “secrets” As The Formation Of Consciousness

The Breakdown Of Ruling, Colonizing Ideas

Objectivist Definitions Of Historical “truth”

Three The Uses Of History In The Refugee Camp: Living The Present In Historical Terms

Fearful Symmetry: The Analogy Between Past And Present 4

Section One: Exodus And Wilderness

The Reproduction Of Hierarchy



The Politics Of Vaccination

The District Commissioner's Tour

Blockage From Higher Education

Spatial Closure, Social Insulation

Insulation From The Outside

The Politics Of Language

Analogy, Alliance, And Equivalence

International Organizations And The “international Audience”

Four Town Refugees: A Pragmatics Of Identity

The Circumvention Of Bureaucratic Entanglement

Strategies Of Invisibility

The Negation Of The Refugee Label

Murundi Versus Hutu, National Versus Ethnic Classification

The Juggling Of Labels

The “immigrant” Label

The “muha” Label

The “muslim” Label

The Pragmatic Chameleon


Citizenship And The Documentation Of Identity


An Immigrant Mythology? Theft, Work, And Wealth In Town

“the Return Is Imaginary!”

Casual Boundary Crossings

Conclusion: The Town Refugees' Relationship To History

Five The Danger Of Assimilation And The Purity Of Exile

The Distance Between Camp And Town

The Camp As A Specter Among The Town Refugees

The View From The Camp: Town Refugees And The Specter Of Assimilation

Intermarriage As A Dangerous Mixing Of Categories

The Danger Of “naturalization”

Resistance To Hierarchical Assimilation In Mishamo

Commerce And Wealth As Politico-moral Evils

Dealings With The Devil

Merchant, Thief, Smuggler, Spy

Quisling Evil And Retribution

The Camp As A Place Of Purification

The Mythico-historical Constitution Of Purity And Exile

Purity And “authenticity”

The Sikukuu Celebration

The Necessity Of Temporariness

Preparing For The Return

Displacement As Purity

Six Consciousness And Liminality In The Cosmological Order Of Nations

Conditions For The Transformation Of Historical Consciousness

The Camp As A Technology Of Power

The Transformation Of Historical Consciousness As A Situational Process

Historical-national Consciousness

Refugees In The Order Of Nation-states

Conclusion: “the Tyger”

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Purity and exile: violence, memory, and national cosmology among Hutu refugees in Tanzania

Published By: Original publisher Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1995. xiv, 352 p. maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Liisa H. Malkki

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Barundi (FO58)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Cultural identity and pride (186); Ethnic stratification (563); Traditional history (173); Mythology (773); History (175); Inter-ethnic relations (629); Warfare (726); Aftermath of combat (727); Instigation of war (721); External relations (648); Inter-community relations (628); Military organization (701); Political parties (665); Political parties (665); Elections (666); Social relationships and groups (571); Political movements (668); Chief executive (643); Peacemaking (728); Poverty (735); Real property (423); Education system (871); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Mail (205);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This book is concerned with Burundian Hutu refugeesliving in Tanzania who fled their home country in 1972 following genocidal attacks organized by the Tutsi-dominated Burundian government. The focus is on the ways the displacement expereince led to the creation of 'essentialist' Hutu and Tutsi ethnic identities and the horrible violence that has been generated from them in Burundi and neigboring countries. The author achieves this goal by comparing the lives of 'camp refugees' in Mishamo to that of the 'town refugees' in Kigoma. The book argues that the expereince of being a 'camp refugee' has in fact exacerbated political and ethnic conflict through the production of 'mythico-historical' world views.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 5

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fo58-005

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. [325]-344) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1984-1986, 1990-1991

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Anthropologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Teferi Abate Adem; 2009

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1960-1995

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Burundi and Tanzania

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Hutu (African people)--Tanzania--Ethnic identity// Political refugees--Burundi//Political refugees--Tanzania


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