Maiskii, I. M. (Ivan Mikhailovich), 1884-1975. Contemporary Mongolia

Table of Contents

Publication Information

The Country

Geographical Location And Boundaries

Size And Area.


The Soil







General Size Of The Population

Previous Data

The Cenus Of 1918

Size Of The Population

Density Of The Population

The Mongols

1. Tribal Subdivisons

Three Branches Of Mongol Nationality

The Khalkhas

The Dürbets

Small Tribes

The Tribes In Numerical Relation

Distribution By Territory

Distribution In Khoshuns

Average Size Of Khoshun

Size Of Ecclesiastical Principalities

Variation In The Density Of The Population

Breakdown By Sex

4. Breakdown By Age

5. Size Of Family And Number Of Households

6. Division Into Classes



Free Citizens


The Clergy

Numerical Correlation Of Classes

7. Physical Aspects Of The Mongol

Outside Outward Appearance



8. Spiritual Characteristics Of The Mongol

A Passive Temperament

Laziness And Inactivity

Time Is Not Money

Dirt And Filth

Ignorance And Superstition

Powers Of Observation And Curiosity

Geniality And Hospitality

Relationships Between Sexes


Honesty And Peaceful Disposition

Mode Of Living



Living Quarters



Bringing Up Of The Children

Death And Burial

Are The Mongols Dying Out?

Established Opinions

Criticism Of Established Opinions

The Number Of Mongols In The Xii–xiv Centuries

Stationary State Of The Population Of Central Asia

First-hand Impressions

The Chinese

General Characteristics

Historical Data

Sex And Age


Distribution In The Country


The Chinese Cemetery

Organization And Institutions

The Chinese Theatre

The Chinese And The Mongols

Weakness Of Chinese Influence In Autonomous Mongolia

Causes Of Weakness Of Chinese Influence

Attitude Of The Mongols Toward The Chinese

The Russians

1. Historical Data

Two Roots Of Russian Colonization.

2. General Characteristics Of The Russian Emigration

The Trading Element

Other Elements


Institutions And Organizations

The Russians And The Mongols

Russian Influence In Autonomous Mongolia

The Mongol Attitude Toward The Russians

The City And The Steppe

The Population Of The City And That Of The Steppe

Monastery Cities


Other Monastery Cities

Uliassutai And Kobdo

Correlation Between City And Steppe Populations


National Economy

Untitled Section: ...

1. Species Of Livestock

Five Species Of Livestock


Horned Cattle




2. System Of Economy

Primitive Type Animal Husbandry

Communal Land Ownership

Grazing Lands

A Nomad Existence

The Weak Points In Mongolian Livestock-breeding

3. Quantity Of Livestock

Previous Calculations

Census Of 1918.



Horned Cattle

Sheep And Goats

Summary Of Results

Live Stock Breakdown By Types

Autonomous Mongolia — A Country Of Small Stock-breeding Economy

Economies Of The Princes And The Church

Distribution Of Livestock Through The Country

4. Is The Quantity Of Live Stock Increasing In Autonomous Mongolia

The Difficulty Of Answering This Question

Opinions Of Well-informed Persons

Approximate Calculations

Insignificance Of The Increase

Disposal Of Liquid Capital

Saturation Of Autonomous Mongolia With Livestock

5. Products Of Livestock Industry



Hunting And Fishing



Budget Of The Mongolian Family

The Significance Of The Budget

The Average Typical Family

The Structure Of The Budget Of Expenses

Characteristics Of Diet

Home-made Products And Commercial Products

Worth Of The Typical Average Unit Of The Economy


Characteristics Of Mongolian Roads

Hardships Encountered On The Mongolian Roads

Means Of Communication.

Main Roads.

Urton Duty.

Prices Of Freight In Mongolia.

Incipient Europeanization Of Transportation.


Sheep And Tea


Paper Money.

Competition Between Russian And Chinese Currencies.

The Present State Of Currency In Autonomous Mongolia.


1. Autonomous Mongolia As A Market.

Capacity Of The Market.

Main Items Of Merchandise.

The Role Of Credit.

Trading Centers And Districts.

2. The Chinese Trade.

Past History Of The Chinese Trade In Mongolia.

Large And Small Firms.

Character Of Operations.

The Mechanics Of Trade.


Strong And Weak Sides Of The Chinese Trade.

3. Russian Private Trade.

History Of Russian Trade With Autonomous Mongolia.

Character Of Russian Trade.

The Mongolian National Bank.

4. The Mongolian Expedition

Origin, Organization, And Activities.

Reasons For The Liquidation Of The Expedition.

5. Cooperatives.


Industrial Occupations Of The Mongols

Chinese Industry

Mineral Resources Of Autonomous Mongolia.


Farming Regions

Chinese Agriculture

Mongolian Agriculture

Agricultural Prospects In Autonomous Mongolia.

National Wealth, National Income And Expenditures.

Economic Potentialities Of Autonomous Mongolia

Present Economic Situation

Economic Future Of Autonomous Mongolia



Livestock Breeding


Untitled Section: ...

The Political History Of Autonomous Mongolia.

The Rise And Decline Of The Mongols

Subjugation By China.

Chinese Policy

The Amursana Rebellion.

Weakening Of The Princely State.

Subjugation Of The Church.

Dynamic Forces In Mongolian History.

Monuments Of The Past In Autonomous Mongolia

Mongolia, — A Historical Graveyard.



An Ancient Fortress.



The Period Of Autonomous Northern Mongolia (1911–1919).

Russian Policy.

The Revolution In Eastern Mongolia.

The Revolution In Western Mongolia.


The Siege And Capture Of Kobdo.

Ja-lama's Further Career.

Formalization Of Autonomous Mongolia's International Political Status.

The Uriankhai Question

The Pan-mongolian Movement.

A Glance Into The Future.

State Administration. *

1. Khoshun.

What Is A Khoshun?

Khoshun Administration.

Functions Of Khoshun Administration.

Bak And Sumun.



2. Aimak

What Is An Aimak?

The Administration And Functions Of The Aimak.

Deputy Administrators.

3. The Central Government.


The Ministries.

The Ecclesiastical Department.

Representative Organs.

Political Groupings.

State Finances

Russian Loans To Autonomous Mongolia.

The Russian Adviser To The Mongolian Government.

The Budget Of The Central Government.


Indebtedness Of Khoshun Administrations.


General Character Of Mongolian Law.

Legal Procedures.

Court Procedures.


Penal Norms.

Laws Concerning Domestic Relations.

The Law Of Inheritance.

Law Of Contracts.


Untitled Section: ...

Characteristics Of Mongolia's Religion.

Mongolia In Its Theological Phase Of Development.

Religious Beliefs In The Chinggis-khan Epoch.

Conversion To Buddhism.

Pure Buddhism.


The Religious Life Of Autonomous Mongolia

The Head Of The Church.

Monasteries And Temples.

Religious Services And Festivities.

Economy Of The Church.

The Lamas

The Career Of A Lama.

The Intellectual And Moral Countenance Of The Lamas.

The Individualistic Order Of The Monasteries.

The Role Of The Lama In Mongolian Life.

Astronomy And Medicine.

The Origin Of The World.

The Earth.

The Sun, Moon And Stars.

Measuring Time.

Structure Of The Human Body.

The Origin Of Sickness And Their Diagnosis.

Methods Of Cure.

European Influences.

Types Of Mongolian Monks

1. The Little Gegen And His Teacher.

2. Dzain Gegen.

A Travelling Lama. *


A Look At The Future Of Mongolia.

Two Possible Roads For Mongolia

Russia And Autonomous Mongolia


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Contemporary Mongolia

Published By: Original publisher Irkutsk: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo, Irkutskoe Otdelenie. 1921. HRAF ms.: x, 782 p. [original: 332 p.] ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication [by] I. Maiskii

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2006. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mongolia (AH01)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Culture summary (105); History (175); Pastoral activities (233); Production and supply (433); External trade (439); Territorial organization (630); Legal norms (671); Offenses and sanctions (680); Government institutions (640); Ecclesiastical organization (790);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This report of the findings of the Russian Expedition to Mongolia in 1919-20 is the best source available for Mongolia and the Khalkha Mongols during the early years of the Mongolian Republic. The material is very exact, detailed and almost universal in its coverage. Of particular importance are the chapters on population, the socio-politcal structure, foreign minorities (Russian and Chinese) in Mongolia, economic life, and foreign trade in Mongolia. Throughout the report, Maiskii always informs the reader how he arrived at his conclusions, about his field methods and the documentary sources that he utilized.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 14

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ah01-014

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English translation from Russian

Note: Translation of: [Sovremennaia Mongoliia]|The original Russian text is not available Translated from the Russian for Human Relations Area Files by Mrs. Dayton and J. Kunitz in 1956. 128 pages of statistical tables have not been translated.

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1919-1920

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Social Scientist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Robert J. Theodoratus ; 1962

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1911-1920

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Mongolia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mongols--Ethnology


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