Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.
Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records
Faron, Louis C., 1923-
Hawks of the sun: Mapuche morality and its ritual
Published By: Original publisher
Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 1964. xii, 221
p. ill., maps
By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication
by Louis C. Faron
HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.:
Human Relations Area Files, 2009. Computer File
Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis.
Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF
Spirits and gods (776);
Cult of the dead (769);
Burial practices and funerals (764);
Organized ceremonial (796);
Shamans and psychotherapists (756);
Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document
In this document the author examines certain Mapuche
expressions of morality in order to indicate as precisely as possible to what degree and
extent these beliefs and practices form an integral part of their cultural and social
system. Drawing upon both historical evidence and data from observations of ceremonies and
descriptions of religious ideas and values in Araucanian reservation communities, Faron
attempts to illustrate how their system of ethcs and morality, cosmology and cosmogony,
deity complex, rituals and ceremonials all operate as interdependent elements of a
functioning socio-religious complex that stabilizes and integrates Araucanian social
structure. To fully expand upon and illustrate the concepts of Mapuche moral system
mentioned above, the author has divided the source into seven chapters, the first of which
deals basically with the social structure of the Mapuche, and the moral implications of
certain economic, political, residential, marital and unilineal arrangements in the
society. The information in this chapter essentially duplicates that of the author's
earlier work on Mapuch social structure (see 11: Faron, this file). In chapter two, the
most important supernatural beliefs are defined and arranged in a manner which lends
significant order to the supernatural ambience. Here, too, may be found data on incidences
of, and individual reactions to, various supernatural forces. Chapter three is a
well-rounded account of Mapuche ritual, which the author feels is essential for an
understanding of the moral order, for, he says …'without this cultural dress, the bare
bones of social relationships appear somewhat inadequate to an understanding of the moral
fibre and the relationship between the value structure and the social structure.' Chapter
four attempts to integrate all the threads of the moral system presented in previous
chapters, with special emphasis on the social grouping operating within the structure of
Mapuche morality, their composition and expressed relationships, and other related
considerations. The funeral ceremony (awn) and the agricultural fertility rite (ñillatun)
are also indexed in this chapter in terms of their structure and function in the society,
as well as the status and role of the shaman and priest. Chapter five examines the concepts
of sorcery and shamanism, and the continual struggle between the forces of good and evil.
This chapter concludes with a consideration of shamanism and sorcery in reference to
institutional solidarity at the local level of Mapuche society. The type of inquiry
expressed in chapter five is carried out one step further in chapter six for it attempts to
examine the extent to which ritual beliefs and activities serve to consolidate the entire
reservation-dwelling Mapuche population into an ethnic entity vis-à-vis Chilean society.
The main purpose of this chapter, however, seems to be to present a total structural
analysis of the system of symbolic values and institutionalized relationships and to point
out significant correspondence between the ideological system and salient features of the
social structure. Chapter seven, the final chapter, discusses the concepts of constancy and
change in a critical, although quite selective analysis of the influence of Western society
on the Mapuche. In conclusion the author presents the point of view that the reservation
system has not been able to destroy traditional religion and morality, and in fact that the
Araucanian religious morality has kept intact societal and cultural equilibrium in a
reservation system which has brought about change in many of the traditional institutions.
Through various adaptive modifications and accomodations made to the reservation context,
the Mapuche have been able to withstand total acculturation or cultural loss. Thus, old
religious and moral values and new social forms function together to counteract any
substantial changes in the culture and society.
Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents
Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.
Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs.
Language: Language that the document is written in
Includes bibliographical references (p. 211-213)
Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document
Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data
Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection.
Gilbert Winer ; John Beierle ; 1968-1970
Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date).
Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)
Cautin Province, central Chile
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings
Mapuche Indians--Social life and customs/Mapuche