Lessa, William Armand. Tales from Ulithi Atoll: a comparative study in oceanic folklore

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I Introduction

Goals

Method

Culture Areas

Ulithian Background

A Note On Orthography

Untitled Section: ...

Twenty-four Tales Collected On Ulithi

Ii Tales Of Iolofäth

1. Iolofäth And Lugeiläng

2. Iolofäth And Khiou

3. Iolofäth And The Handsome Spouses

Iii Tales Of Terrestrial Spirits

4. “pälülop” And His Family

Iv Tales Of Motikitik

5. Lorop And Motikitik

V Tales Of Beginnings

6. The Porpoise Girl

7. How Men Were Taught Fish Magic

8. How Ulithi Got Fish Traps

9. How Ngulu Was Settled

Vi Tales Of Eroticism

10. Sikhal˙l And His Mother

11. Two Brothers Who Coveted Their Sister

12. Holwarong And The Five Sisters

Vii Tales Of Ogres

13. The Deserted Woman And Her Ogre-killing Son

14. The Spirit Who Lost A Chase

15. Tautau And The Ogre's Coconut Shells

16. The Ogre Who Ate I˙ol's Daughter

17. The Ogre Who Chased Two Sisters

18. The Madman And The Evil Spirit

19. The Ogre's Breadfruit

Viii Tales Of Animals

20. The Landcrab And The Rat

21. The Birds And The Eel

Ix Miscellaneous Tales

22. Sisier And The Turtle Shells

23. The Poor Lizard Girl

24. The Burial

Sixteen Tale Types Occurring Elsewhere In Oceania

X Tale Type: *iolofäth And Lugeiläng

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Melanesia

Cognates From Polynesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *iolofäth And Lugeiläng

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xi Tale Type: *iolofäth And Khiou

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Sibling Rivalry

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *iolofäth And Khiou

Micronesia

Xii Tale Type: *iolofäth And The Handsome Spouses

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *iolofäth And The Handsome Spouses

Micronesia

Xiii Tale Type: *“pälülop” And His Family

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *“pälülop” And His Family

Micronesia

Xiv Tale Type: *lorop And Motikitik

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Melanesia

Discussion Of The Distinctive Elements

The Personalities Of Maui And Motikitik

The Explanatory Element

The Myth And Political Dominance

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: * Lorop And Motikitik

Micronesia

Melanesia

Xv Tale Type: *the Porpoise Girl (“the Swan Maiden”)

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Malaysia

Cognates From Melanesia

Cognates From Polynesia

Cognates From Australia

The Nature Of The Maiden

The Inducement To Visit The Earth

The Mode Of Capture

The Old Woman

The Maiden's Children

The Parting

The Explanatory Element

Imputed Symbolisms

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *the Porpoise Girl (“the Swan Maiden”)

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Australia

Xvi Tale Type: *how Ulithi Got Fish Traps

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *how Ulithi Got Fish Traps

Micronesia

Xvii Tale Type: *how Ngulu Was Settled

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Historicity Of The Legend

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *how Ngulu Was Settled

Micronesia

Xviii Tale Type 931: Oedipus (sikhal˙ol And His Mother)

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Malaysia

Problematical Malaysian Specimens

Problematical Micronesian Specimens

Problematical Melanesian Specimens

Problematical Polynesian Specimens

Deviations In The Basic Elements

Fingernails In Lovemaking

Imputed Symbolism

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type 931: Oedipus (sikhal˙ol And His Mother)

Malaysia

Micronesia

Problematical Tales

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xix Tale Type: *two Brothers Who Coveted Their Sister

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Melanesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *two Brothers Who Coveted Their Sister

Micronesia

Melanesia

Xx Tale Type: *the Deserted Woman And Her Ogre-killing Son

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates

The Hero's Adversaries

The Deserted Woman

Reasons For The Abandonment

The Hideout

The Conceiving Of The Hero

The Hero

The Return Of The Refugees

The Number Ten

The Explanatory Element

Imputed Symbolism

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *the Deserted Woman And Her Ogre-killing Son

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxi Tale Type: *the Spirit Who Lost A Chase

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Malaysia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *the Spirit Who Lost A Chase

Malaysia

Micronesia

Xxii Tale Type: *tautau And The Ogre's Coconut Shells

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *tautau And The Ogre's Shells

Micronesia

Xxiii Tale Type: *the Landcrab And The Rat

The Nature Of The Tale Type

The Dramatis Personae

Reversed Roles

The Quarrel On Land

The Quarrel At Sea

The Outraged Benefactor

Anal And Excretory Incidents

The Explanatory Element

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *the Landcrab And The Rat

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxiv Tale Type: *sisier And The Turtle Shells

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

The Explanatory Element

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *sisier And The Turtle Shells

Micronesia

Xxv Tale Type: *the Poor Lizard Girl

The Nature Of The Tale Type

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Malaysia

Cognates From Polynesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Tale Type: *the Poor Lizard Girl

Malaysia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Fifteen Folkloristic Motifs Occurring Elsewhere In Oceania

Xxvi Motif A814: Earth From Object Thrown On Primeval Water

The Nature Of The Motif

Cognates In The Pälülop Cycle

Independent Malaysian Occurrences

Independent Melanesian Occurrences

Independent Micronesian Occurrences

Independent Polynesian Occurrences

The Explanatory Element

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif A814: Earth From Object Thrown On Primeval Water

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxvii Motif A955.8: Island Fished Up By Demigod (hero)

The Nature Of The Motif

The Fisher

The Fisher's Father

The Fisher's Mother

The Fisher's Brothers

The Hook, The Line, And The Bait

The Canoe

The Places Fished Up

The Explanatory Element

The Motif And Geological Theory

Imputed Symbolisms

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif A955.8: Island Fished Up By Demigod (hero)

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxviii Motif A2345.9+: Origin Of Shark's Teeth

The Nature Of The Motif

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Melanesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif A2345.9+: Origin Of Shark's Teeth

Melanesia

Micronesia

Xxix Motif D150: Transformation: Man (trickster) To Bird

The Nature Of The Motif

Maui's Transformations

Iolofäth's Transformation

Other Trickster's Transformations

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif D150: Transformation: Man (trickster) To Bird

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxx Motif D1552.2: Open Sesame

The Nature Of The Motif

Maui-type Cognates In Polynesia And Micronesia

Independent Malaysian Occurrences

Independent Melanesian Occurrences

Independent Micronesian Occurrences

Independent Polynesian Occurrences

Wording Of The Spells

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif D 1552.2: Open Sesame

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxxi Motif D1611: Magic Object Answers For Fugitive

The Nature Of The Motif

Independent Malaysian Occurrences

Independent Melanesian Occurrences

Independent Micronesian Occurrences

Independent Polynesian Occurrences

Independent Australian Occurrences

Analysis Of Objects, Fugitives, And Pursuers

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif D1611: Magic Object Answers For Fugitive

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Australia

Xxxii Motif D1652: Inexhaustible Object

Nature Of The Motif

Cognates In The Olofat Cycle

Cognates In The Pälülop Cycle

Independent Malaysian Occurrences

Independent Melanesian Occurrences

Independent Micronesian Occurrences

Independent Polynesian Occurrences

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif D1652: Inexhaustible Object

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxxiii Motif F61.3.1: Ascent To Upper World In Smoke

The Nature Of The Motif

Cognates From Malaysia

Cognates From Melanesia

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Polynesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif F61.3.1: Ascent To Upper World In Smoke

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxxiv Motif F80: Journey To Lower World

The Nature Of The Motif

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Polynesia And Their Types

Independent Melanesian Occurrences

Independent Micronesian Occurrences

Independent Polynesian Occurrences

Imputed Symbolisms

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif F80: Journey To Lower World

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxxv Motif J157: Wisdom (knowledge) From Dream

The Nature Of The Motif

The Origin Of Cultural Traits

Extrication From Death, Danger, And Difficulty

Achieving Wealth, Power, Success, And Happiness

Divination

The Quest For Dreams

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif J157: Wisdom (knowledge) From Dream

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Australia

Xxxvi Motif K959.6: Posthole Murder

The Nature Of The Motif

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Melanesia

Cognates From Polynesia

Independent Malaysian Occurrences

Independent Melanesian Occurrences

Independent Micronesian Occurrences

Imputed Symbolisms

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif K959.6: Posthole Murder

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxxvii Motif R231: Obstacle Flight—atalanta Type

The Nature Of The Motif

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Malaysia

Independent Malaysian Occurrences

Independent Melanesian Occurrences

Independent Micronesian Occurrences

Independent Polynesian Occurrences

Analysis Of The Motif

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif R231: Obstacle Flight—atalanta Type

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxxviii Motif T541.4: Birth From Person's Head

The Nature Of The Motif

Cognates From Micronesia

Cognates From Polynesia

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif T541.4: Birth From Person's Head

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xxxix Motif T615: Supernatural Growth

The Nature Of The Motif

The Range Of The Motif

The Heroic Figure

The Unusual Conception

The Unusual Term Of Pregnancy

The Unusual Parturition

The Innate Capacity To Grow Fast

The Acquired Capacity To Grow Fast

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif T615: Supernatural Growth

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xl Motif Z71.16.2: Formulistic Number: Ten

The Nature Of The Motif

Single Passive References

Multiple Passive References

Naming Of Children

Increments From One To Ten

Decrements From Ten To One

Reversal Of The Cardinal Numbers

Tenfold Repetitions

Counting

Geographical Considerations

Distribution Of Motif Z71.16.2: Formulistic Number: Ten

Malaysia

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

Xli Conclusion

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Tales from Ulithi Atoll: a comparative study in oceanic folklore

Published By: Original publisher Berkeley: University of California Press. 1961. x, 493 p.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication William A. Lessa

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Ulithi (OR20)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Comparative evidence (171); Verbal arts (5310); Mythology (773); Spirits and gods (776); Texts in the speaker's language (901); Texts translated into english (902);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The first part of this study consists of a collection of previously unpublished myths and folktales from Ulithi Atoll in the West Caroline Islands, and how this folklore is related to the technology, social and political organization, religion, and values of the people. Lessa then presents a generalized discussion on the various motifs and themes present in Ulithian folktales which appear elsewhere in Oceania (e.g., Malaysia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Australia, and even Madagascar) for which there is comparative data. From the analysis of this comparative material the author contends '…that Ulithian culture is a conglomerate with not too distinctive a character. The folktales clearly indicate this; they are anything but unique. For the most part they constitute an amalgam of stories and motifs from far-flung areas' (p. 20).

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 2

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. or20-002

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 465-493)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1947-1949

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 2006

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1900-1949

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Ulithi, Federated States of Micronesia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Tales--Micronesia/Ulithi (Micronesia)

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