Freeman, Derek. Iban agriculture: a report on the shifting cultivation of hill rice by the Iban of Sarawak

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part I An Introductory Account Of Iban Social Organization

The Iban Long-house

The Family Apartment

The Iban Bilek Family

The Long-house Community


Part Ii Land Tenure

Historical Introduction

First Entry Into The Baleh

Second Entry Into The Baleh

The Third Entry Into The Baleh

Iban Rights In The Baleh Region

Principles Of Land Tenure Among The Iban

The Settlement Of New Territory

Part Iii Agriculture


Shifting Cultivation And Settlement Patterns

The Dampa System

The Dampa System At Rumah Nyala

The Kinship Basis Of Dampa Groups

The Rôle Of The Bilek Family In Padi Cultiuation

The Techniques Of Iban Hill Padi Cultivation

Planting By The Stars

The Rites Of Manggol

Clearing The Undergrowth

Felling The Fungle

The Firing Of The Farms

The Planting Of The Padi: Dibbling

The Planting Of The Padi: Sowing

The Sowing Rate Observed By The Iban

The Planting Pattern Of An Iban Farm

Seed Selection


The Weeding Of The Farm

The Guarding Of The Farms

Traps, And Other Protective Devices

The Harvest

The Nganjong Ka Penyadai Ritual

Iban Methods Of Reaping

The Carrying In Of The Padi


The Completion Of The Harvest

The Reaping Of The Padi Pun


The Storing Of The Padi

Part Iv The Economics Of Agriculture


The Organization Of Labour

The Cuslom Of Bejalai

The Management Of A Bilek Family Farm

The Economic Significance Of The Custom Of Bejalai

Division Of Labour

The Rôle Of Children

Participation By Men In Farm Work

The Labour-exchange System

The Principles Of The Labour-exchange System

Working For Wages

The Time Factor In Padi Cultivation

Time Expended In Man-days Per Acre

The Size Of Bilek Family Farms


Normal Yields Of Bilek Family Farms

Comparative Data On Yields From Dry Rice Cultivation

Consumption Of Padi By The Bilek Family

Subsidiary Consumption

Padi Expended On Rituals

Annual Requirements In Padi Of The Average Bilek Family

The Extent To Which Iban Households Attain Their Yearly Requirements Of Padi

Rubber As A Cash Crop, And Its Relation To Padi Cultivation

Bilek Families That Produce A Surplus Of Padi

A Summary Of The Economics Of Four Bilek Family Farms

Part V Iban Methods Of Land Usage


Iban Terminology For The Main Stages Of Land Usage

Iban Modes Of Land Usage In Pioneer Regions

The Predilection Of The Iban For Virgin Fungle

The Krukoh Method

Iban Prodigality

Other Advantages Of The Krukoh Method

The Pangkal Method

The Dijap Method

Summary Of Principal Features Of Iban Land Usage In Virgin Territory

Methods Of Usage In Secondary Fungle

The Cultivation Of Krukoh Damun And Dijap Damun

Land Usage At Rumah Nyala

The Varied Composition Of Bilek Family Farms

The Cultivation Of Krukoh Kampong At Rumah Nyala

The Cultivation Of Krukoh Damun At Rumah Nyala

The Effects Of Shifting Cultivation

Regeneration After The Cultivation Of Virgin Fungle, Or Kampong


The Effects Of Shifting Cultivation On Soil Composition And Structure

The Factor Of Weed Growth

The Effects Of Cultivating Krukoh Kampong

The Effects Of Cuitivating Dijap Kampong

Excessive Usage Of Secondary Fungle


Part Vi The Problem Of Shifting Cultivation


The Stabilization Of Shifting Cultivation

The Conditions Under Which Shifting Cultivation Is Tolerable From An Agricultural Point Of View

The Carrying Capacity Of Land Under The System Of Shifting Cultivation

Population-land Balance Under The System Of Shifting Cultivation

The Achieving Of A Population-land Balance

The Problem Of Shifting Cultivation In Pioneer Areas

The Stabilization Of Shifting Cultivation In Pioneer Areas: The Need To Change The Entire Basis Of Iban Land Usage

A Propaganda Campaign Against Wasteful Methods Of Land Usage

The Possibility Of Legal Ccontrol

Complementary Long-term Measures

The Size Of The Long-house Community As A Factor In The Stabilization Of Shifting Cultivation


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Iban agriculture: a report on the shifting cultivation of hill rice by the Iban of Sarawak

Published By: Original publisher London, England: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1955. xii, 148 p., plates ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication J. Derek Freeman

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1995. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Iban (OC06)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Cereal agriculture (243);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is a report on the shifting cultivation of hill rice, a form of primitive agriculture found throughout monsoon Asia. Freeman conducted his field work among the Iban communities in Baleh, a pioneering area located at one of the upper tributaries of the Rejang River. Freeman describes Iban community and family structure, settlement pattern, the land tenure system, and the migratory movements of the people. Freeman's description of agricultural practices includes forest clearing, sowing, weeding, harvesting, transportation, and storage of grains. Other aspects of Iban culture discussed are religion, folk knowledge, diet, tools and implements, trade, travels, and social values. Freeman has also made an analysis of the economics of shifting cultivation and the relationship between agricultural technique and land resources. The final chapter is a discussion of the proper population-land balance and suggestions for the colonial government for effecting stability in the native economy.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. oc06-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1949-1951

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Robert Lee

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). not specified

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Baleh, Sarawak, Malaysia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Ibans (Bornean people)


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