Villa Rojas, Alfonso. The Maya of east central Quintana Roo

Table of Contents

Publication Information

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Untitled Section: ...

I Quintana Roo Before The Conquest

Colonization

The Ancient Cities

Division Of The Peninsula Into Cacicazgos

The Arrival Of White Men

Ii Colonial Period

First Attempts At Conquest

The Hostility Of The Eastern Maya

The Conquest Is Completed

The Collapse Of Spanish Rule In Quintana Roo

Iii The War Of The Castes And The Isolation Of Quintana Roo

Antecedents

The Founding Of Chan Santa Cruz

The Cult Of The Cross

The New Cacicazgos Of Quintana Roo

The Cacicazgo Of Chan Santa Cruz

The Cacicazgo Of Ixkanha 32

The Cacicazgo Of Icaiche 34

Iv The Pacification Of Quintana Roo

The Treaty Of Belize

The Military Campaign

General Bravo In Chan Santa Cruz

Return Of Chan Santa Cruz To The Maya Indians

The Chicle Industry

Separation Of The Subtribe Of X-cacal

The First Schools

The Territory In Recent Years

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V The Subtribe Of X-cacal

Climate And Topography Of Quintana Roo

Regional Differences Within The Territory

The Subtribe Of X-cacal

Location And Communications

The Settlements Of The Subtribe

Spatial Limits Of The Native's World

Temporal Limits Of The Native's World

Origin And Racial Composition Of The Group

Language

Literacy

Population

Population Changes

Vital Statistics

Vi The Material Culture

House Types And Techniques Of Construction

Domestic Furniture And Utensils

Food And Its Preparation

Clothing

Handicrafts

Agriculture

Poultry And Hogs

Bee Culture

Hunting

Vii Economic Life

Maize And Chicle: Subsistence And Cash

Volume Of Maize Production

The Chicle Industry

The Size Of The Chicle Crop

Other Tasks

Production And Consumption Groups

The Standard Of Living

Wealth And Opportunity

Personal Property

Inheritance

Property In Land

Trade And Money

Borrowing And Lending

Wages

Viii Division Of Labor

Division Of Labor By Sex

Division Of Labor By Age

Secular Specialists

Sacred Specialists

The Nohoch-tata

The Maestros

The Secretaries

The H-men

Cooperative Labor

Occupational Division Of Time

The Yearly Round

Ix Social And Political Organization

Household Groups

Kinship

Kinship Terms

Kinship Behavior

Marriage And The Choice Of Spouse 11

Temporary Matrilocal Residence (haancab)

Temporary Patrilocal Residence

Godparenthood And The Compadre Relationship 22

Political Organization

The Companies

Form Of Government

Social Status

Racial And Cultural Distinctions

X The Pagan-christian Religious Complex

Christian Gods And Intermediaries

The Crosses

The Holy Father And His Son

The Saints

The Pagan Gods

The Yuntzilob

Guardians Of The Animals

Goblins And Unfriendly Beings

Propitiation Of The Supernaturals

The Two Ritual Contexts

The Altars

Altars Of The Christian Deities

Altars Of The Pagan Deities

The Offerings

Offerings To The Pagan Gods

Offerings To The Christian Gods

Xi Agricultural Ceremonies

Making The Milpa

U-hanli-chaacob, The Dinner Of The Rain Gods

The Oxdias 4

The Okotbatam

The Prayer Of The Milpa

The Primicia

Tupp-kak And U-hanli-col

Rites Related To Beekeeping 17

Xii Catholic Ritual And Fiestas

Rituals And Prayers

The Oxdias

The Rosary

Novena

Edzcunah-gracia

Chan Rezar Or Rezo

Services In The Shrine Village

Lent And Holy Week

The Fiesta Of The Patron Crosses

Subtribal Fiestas In The Shrine Village

Xiii Diseases And Their Treatment

The Notion Of “hot” And “cold”

Evil Winds And Amulets

Other Causes Of Disease

Medicines And Therapeutic Practices

The Purification Rites Of The H-men (u-lohol Ah-kin)

Santiguar And Kex

Xiv Ceremonies And Practices Connected With The Life Cycle

Pregnancy And Childbirth 1

Godparenthood Rites

The Tzicil Ceremony

The Poh-kab Or Hand-washing Ceremony

Announcement Of The Birth (tac-hol)

Naming The Child

Baptism

The Hetzmek

Childhood And Adolescence

Marriage And Courtship Rites

Death And Mortuary Practices

Life After Death

Hanal-pixan Or All Souls' Days

Xv Cosmology

The Origin Of Man

The World And Its Cardinal Points

Heavenly Bodies And Eclipses

Animals And Plants

Omens

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Maya of east central Quintana Roo

Published By: Original publisher Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington. 1945. xii, 182 p., plates ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Alfonso Villa R.

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Maya (Yucatán Peninsula) (NV10)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Prehistory (172); History (175); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Cereal agriculture (243); Division of labor by gender (462); Arranging a marriage (584); Kinship terminology (601); Kin relationships (602); External relations (648); Revolution (669); Spirits and gods (776); Organized ceremonial (796);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The subtribe of X-Cacal in Quintana Roo was selected for study as an illustration of one end of the folk-urban continuum in Yucatan. Since the group was isolated, the Villa Rojas supposed their culture might be more stable and unmodified. However, he does point out later in the text that a 'new and distinctive culture' was produced in the nineteenth century as a result of isolation following the War of the Castes (1847-1853). Some unique features were the politico-religious system of social control centering around the Cult of the Cross, and the division into military companies. After a preliminary reconnaissance in 1932, Villa Rojas returned the following year as a traveling merchant in order to establish rapport with the group. The major part of the investigation (1935-1936) was carried out employing more usual ethnographic methods. The sum total of time in the field was one year. Part I of the source is a history of Quintana Roo providing a background to Part II, which is a comprehensive ethnographic account of the culture of the subtribe. Although there are nine communities, most of the data were gathered in X-Cacal and Tusik villages. An annotated bibliography of the Caste War and Allied Topics, by Howard F. Cline appears as Appendix C.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 4

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nv10-004

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 179-182)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1932-1936

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Joan Steffens ; 1965

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). prehistory - ca. 1937

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) X-Cacal subtribe, Quintana Roo, Mexico

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mayas

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