Sahagún, Bernadino de, -1590. General history of the things of New Spain: Florentine codex: book 11 -- earthly things

Table of Contents

Publication Information

De Las Propríedades De Los Anímales

Eleventh Book, Which Telleth Of The Different Animals, The Birds, The Fishes; And The Trees And The Herbs; The Metals Resting In The Earth — Tin, Lead, And Still Others; And The Different Stones.

First Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Four-footed Animals. 1

First Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Wild Beasts.

Ocelot 2

White Ocelot 4

Ruddy Ocelot 5

The Nature, The Ways Of This Ocelot

Ocelot 7

Tapir 9

Tzoniztac 10

Cuitlachtli Or Cuetlachtli 12

Mountain Lion 13

Jaguarundi 14

Maçamiztli 15

Cuitlamiztli

Ringtail 17

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of All The Animals, The Four-footed Forest-dwellers.

Coyote 1

Cuitlachcoyotl Or Cuetlachcoyotl

Azcalcoyotl

Badger 4

Bobcat 5

Grey Fox 7

Raccoon 9

Coati 10

Peccary Or Forest Peccary 11

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Habits Of Still Other Four-footed Animals.

Squirrel 1

Tree Squirrel

Ground Squirrel 3

Chipmunk 4

Brown Chipmunk

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Habits Of A Four-legged Animal Called Opossum.

Opossum 1

Fifth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Habits Of Still Other Four-footed Animals.

Hare 1

Rabbit 2

Weasel 3

Skunk 4

Monkey 6

Sixth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Four-footed Animals Like The Deer, And Of Others Like It; Then Of Dogs Which They Bred In Times Past.

Deer 1

White Deer

Antelope 2

Dog 3

Teuih

Xoloitzcuintli 5

Tlalchichi 6

Otter 7

Gopher 8

Seventh Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Small Animals, Like The Mouse, And Of Others Like It.

Mouse 1

Water Mouse 2

Forest Mouse

Field Mouse

House Mouse

Tecocon, Tecoconton

[tetlaquechililli]

Kangaroo Rat Or Long-tail 4

Pocket Gopher 5

Second Chapter , Which Telleth Of All The Different Kinds Of Birds.

First Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Many Different Kinds Of Birds, Of Whatever Sort.

Resplendent Trogon 1

Mexican Trogon 6

Roseate Spoonbill 8

Xiuhquechol 9

Troupial 10

Ayoquan 11

Ayoquan

Blue Honeycreeper 14

Lovely Cotinca 15

Turquoise-browed Motmot 17

Emerald Toucanet 19

Squirrel Cuckoo 21

Blue Grosbeak 22

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Birds Like The Young Yellow-headed Parrot And The Scarlet Macaw, And Still Others.

Young Yellow-headed Parrot 1

Adult Yellow-headed Parrot 3

Scarlet Macaw 4

White-fronted Parrot 5

Aztec Parakeet 6

Red-crowned Parrot 7

Hummingbird 8

Broad-tailed Hummingbird 11

Costa Hummingbird 12

Hecauitzilin 18

Ruby-throated Hummingbird 20

Telolouitzilin

Yollotototl 23

Rail 24

Tecuciltototl

Ixmatlatototl

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Waterfowl.

Duck

Goose 1

Mexican Duck 2

Mallard 4

White-fronted Goose 5

Brown Crane 6

Xomotl 7

American White Pelican 8

American Coot 9

Wilson Snipe 11

Northern Phalarope 12

Cliff Swallow 13

Barn Swallow 14

Snowy Egret 15

Little Blue Heron 16

Wild Turkey

Pelican

Water-turkey 19

Western Grebe 20

Black Skimmer 21

Wood Ibis 22

Purple Gallinule 24

American Bittern 27

Acuitlachtli

Black-bellied Plover 32

American Avocet 34

Common Teal 35

Blue-winged Teal 36

Canvas-back 37

Hooded Mercanser 39

Buffle-head 41

Ruddy Duck 42

Pintail 43

Baldpate 45

Eared Grebe 47

Tzonyayauhqui 48

Mallard 49

Cinnamon Teal 50

Achalalactli 51

Shoveller 52

Black-crowned Night Heron 53

Pipitztli 55

Western Grebe 56

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of All The Birds [of Prey].

Eagle 1

White Eagle

Nocturnal Eagle

Marsh Hawk 8

Water Eagle

Golden Eagle 10

Osprey 11

Crab-hawk 12

King Vulture 14

Lauching Falcon 15

Black Vulture 16

Owl 17

Burrowing Owl 18

Common Raven 19

Jabiru 20

Franklin Cull 21

Prairie Falcon 22

Marsh Hawk 23

Qoauhtlotli

Yellow Falcon 26

Ecatlotli

Ayauhtlotli

White Falcon

Obsidian Falcon

Youaltlotli 27

Necuilictli

Loggerhead Shrike 29

Fifth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Kinds Of Birds, Of Whatever Sort.

Bullock Oriole 1

Banded-backed Wren 2

Tachitouya

Golden-fronted Woodpecker 3

Whip-poor-will 6

Crested Guan 7

Barn Owl 8

Tapalcatzotzonqui

Tlalchiquatli

Brown Towhee 9

Wren 10

Meadowlark 11

Sparrow 12

Vermillion Flycatcher 13

Red Warbler 14

Common House Finch 15

Quachichil 16

Nochtototl

Inca Dove 17

Sixth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Kinds Of Birds.

Montezuma Quail 1

Tecuçolin

Ouaton 2

Seventh Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Birds, Of Their Habits.

Slender-billed Grackle 1

Boat-tailed Crackle 2

Acatzanatl Or Acatzunatl 4

Coyoltototl 5

Mourning Dove 6

Ground Dove 7

Eighth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Birds Which Are Good Singers.

Curve-billed Thrasher 1

Northern Mockingbird 2

Miauatototl

Ladder-backed Woodpecker 3

Common Chachalaca 6

Ninth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Native Turkeys.

Turkey 1

Tenth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Parts Of The Different Birds.

Third Chapter , Which Telleth Of All The Animals Which Dwell In The Water.

First Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Some Kinds Of Birds Which Always Dwell In The Water.

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of All The Fishes.

Fish

Tlacamichin 4

Coamichin 5

Chimalmichin 6

Totomichin

Uitzitzilmichin 7

Papalomichin 8

Ocelomichin

Quauhxouili

[axolomichin] 9

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of All The Small Water Animals.

Tecuicitli Or Atecuicitli 10

Chacali 12

Turtle 13

Snail 15

Tapachtli 16

Pearl

Oyster

Bitumen

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Animals, Of The Name Of Each Kind, And Of The Fishes Which Live In The Rivers Or In The Lagoons.

Armadillo 1

Iguana 3

Texixincoyotl 4

Tecouixin 5

Milquaxoch 6

Topotli 7

Amilotl 8

Cuitlapetotl 10

Michçaquan

Michteuhtli

Michpictli

Tentzonmichin

Fifth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of All The Small Animals Which Live In The Water: The Edible Ones.

Tadpole

Frog 1

Tecalatl

Acacueyatl

Çoquicueyatl

Axolotl 2

Acocilin 3

Aneneztli 4

Axaxayacatl 5 Or Quatecomatl

Amoyotl

Ocuiliztac 6

Michpili

Izcauitl 7

Tecuitlatl, 8 Acuitlatl, Açoquitl, [or] Amomoxtli

Fourth Chapter , Which Telleth Of Still Other Animals Which Live In The Water, Which Axe Inedible.

First Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Inedible Water-living Animals.

Crocodile 1

Acipaquitli 2

Acoyotl

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of An Animal Named Auitzotl , Like A Monster As To Its Body And As To Its Habits. It Lives, Makes Its Home In The Water, Either In A River Or Somewhere In A Spring.

Auitzotl 1

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of A Very Thick Serpent Which Is In The Water.

Acoatl, Tlilcotl 1

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Water-dwelling Serpents.

Acoatl 1

Citlalaxolotl

Cacatl

Toad 3

Milcalatl 4

Fifth Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Various Serpents, And Of Still Other Creatures Which Live On The Ground.

First Paragraph, Which Telleth Of A Large Serpent With Rattles.

Ticutlacoçauhqui 1

Iztac Coatl 5

Tleuacoatl 6

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of A Very Large Serpent With Rattles.

Chiauitl Or Chiauhcoatl 1

Olcoatl 5

Tllcoatl

Çlolcoatl 6

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of A Two-headed Serpent.

Maquizcoatl

Maçacoatl 2

Maçacoatl 3

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Serpents; Of The Names Of Still Other Kinds.

Maçacoatl

Tlalmaçacoatl

Tetzauhcoatl 1

Tlapapalcoatl 3

Coapetlatl Or Petlacoatl 4

Coapetlatl 5

Chimalcoatl Or Coachimalli 6

Citlalcoatl 7

Metlapilcoatl 10

Fifth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of A Thick Serpent.

Aueyactli 1

Palancacoatl 2

Hecacoatl Or Hecaua 3

Tzoalcoatl

Sixth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of All The Large Serpents; Of The Names Of Each One.

Cincoatl Or Cencoatl 1

Quatzoncoatl

Mecacoatl 3

Tetzmolcoatl 4

Quetzalcoatl

Seventh Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Large Serpents And Of The Names Of Each Kind.

Xicalcoatl 1

Miauacoatl 3

Petzcoatl

Coatatapatolli

Petlaçolcoatl 5

Eighth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Manner Of Life Of A Number Of Small Insects.

Scorpion

Poisonous Spider

Tocamaxaqualli

Bedbug

Caltatapach

Pinauiztli

Ninth Paragraph, In Which The Ways Of The Ants Are Told.

Ant

Red Ant Ok Ant Of Red Abdomen

Lone Ant

Tree Ant

Dung Ant

Black Ant

Tzicatl

Tzicanantli 3

Tzicatana

Nequazcatl 4

Tenth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Small Insects Whose Dwelling Place Is On The Ground.

Tlalxiquipilli

Tlalacatl

Tapaxi Or Tapayaxi 2

Conyayaual

Tlalomitl

Ueuetlaneuhqui

Tecuitlaololo

Pinacatl 3

Tzontli Ima

Eleventh Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Bees Which Produce Honey.

Xicotli 1

Pipiolin 2

Mimiauatl

Butterfly

Xicalpapalotl Or Xicalteconpapalotl Or Xicaltecon

Tlilpapalotl

Tlecocozpapalotl

Iztac Papalotl

Chian Papalotl

Texopapalotl

Xochipapalotl

Uappapalotl

Twelfth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Locusts And How They Are Subdivided.

Acachapolin

Yectli Chapolin

Xopan Chapolin

Tlalchapolin

Çolacahapolin

Çacatecuilichtli

Capolocuilin

Auatecolotl

Paçotl

Thirteenth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Different Ways Of The Worms.

Tetatamachiuhqui

Meocuilin 1

Chichilocuilin 3

Metzonocuilin

Tzinocuilin

Tzinocuilin 4

Tzoncoatl

Chiancuetlan Or Chiencuetlan

Nextecuilin 7

Cinocuilin

Tlaçolocuilin

Citlalocuilin

Citlalocuilin 8

Temolin 9

Cuitlatemolin

Ayoxochquiltemolin

Quauhtemolin

Quauhocuilin

Fourteenth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Little Insects Called Fireflies, And Of Others Like Them.

Icpitl

Mayatl 2

Tecmilotl 3

Miccaçayolin 4

Xopan Çayolin

Tzonuatzalton 5

Chilton 6

Çayolin

Çayolton

Xiuhçayolin

Moyotl 7

Xalmoyotl

Sixth Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Various Trees, And Of The Various Properties Which Correspond To Them, Such As Their Strength.

First Paragraph, In Which Are Told The Names Of The Different Trees.

Forest

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Different Trees.

Tlatzcan 1

Fir 3

Ayauhquauitl 4

Pine 5

Ash 6

Cypress 7

Silk Cotton Tree 8

Auaquauitl, Auatl, Teoquauitl. 9

Auatetzmolin 10

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Trees Which Are Not Very Large, Which Are Considered As Herbs.

Manzanita 1

Tomazquitl 2

Quauhtepoztli 3

Uicquauitl

Necalizquauitl

Pocquauitl

Teocotl 5

Coatli 6

Topoçan 8

Willow 10

Quetzaluexotl, Quetzalauexotl 11

Icçotl 12

Çotolin 13

Çoyatl 14

Tlacuilolquauitl 15

Tlacalhuazquauitl

Chichic Quauitl, 17 Chichic Patli

Amaquauitl 18

Ocotzoquauitl, 19 Xochiocotzoquauitl

Olquauitl 20

Uitzquauitl 22

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Parts Of Each Tree; Such As The Branch; Then The Root

Fifth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Dried Tree Which Is No Longer Verdant, Which Is Well Dried, Which Just Lies Dried.

Sixth Paragraph, Which Telleth How Trees Are Planted.

Sapodilla 1

Cochiztzafotl 3

Tlacaçoltzapotl

Atzapotl 5

Xicotzapotl 7

Totolcuitlatzapotl 9

Teçontzapotl 10

Quauhtzapotl 12

Auacatl 13

Tlacaçolauacatl

Quilauacatl

Seventh Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Various Kinds Of Trees On Which Fruit Grows.

Texocotl 1

Plum 2

Atoyaxoootl 3

Xalxocotl 4

Cacao Tree 5

Teonacaztli 6

Uaxin 9

Mesquite 10

Mulberry 11

Capulin 12

Elocapulin

Tlaolcapulin 13

Xitomacapulin

Quauhcamotli 14

Eighth Paragraph, In Which Are Told The Sorts Of Nopal And The Tunas On Them.

Iztac Nochnopalli 4

Coznochnopalli 5

Tlatocnochnopalli 6

Cuicuilnochnopalli

Anochnopalli

Tzooalnochnopalli

Tzaponochnopalli 10

Tlanexnopalli

Camaxtle

Xoconochnopalli 12

Tenopalli 13

Azcanochnopalli

Tecolonochnopalli

Ninth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of All The Edible Fruits Which Are Within The Earth.

Quauhcamotli 1

Camotli 3

Xicamoxiuitl

Cimatl 6

Tolcimatl 7

Cacapxon

Cacomitl 9

Acaxilotl 10

Atzatzamolli 12

Çacateztli 14

Quequexqui 15 [or] Quequexquic

Xaltomatl 16

Uitzocuitlapilli 17

Seventh Chapter , Which Telleth Of All The Different Herbs.

First Paragraph, In Which Are Told The Names Of The Many Different Herbs Which Perturb One, Madden One.

Coatl Xoxouhqui Or Ololiuhqui 1

Peyote 2

Tlapatl 3

Tzitzintlapatl

Mixitl 4

Nanacatl 5

Tochtetepon

Atlepatli 7

Aquiztli 8

Tenxoxoli

Quimichpatli 9

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Mushrooms.

Tzontecomananacatl 1

Xelhuaznanacatl

Chimalnanacatl

Menanacatl

Çacananacatl

Quauhnanacatl

Cimatl 3

Amolli 5

Tecpatli, 6 Tecpalotl

Yiamolli 7

Acocotli 8

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Herbs Which Are Edible Cooked.

Uauhquimtl, 1 An Edible Herb

Uauhtzontli

Quiltonilli 2

Itzmiquitl 3

Ayoxochquilitl 4

Gourd Vine Tips

Axoxoco 5

Mizquiquilitl

Acuitlacpalli

Tziuinquilitl Or Atziuenquilitl

Tacanalquilitl

Mamaxtla 7 Or Mamaxtlaquilitl

Tzitzicazquilltl 8

Uei Uauhquilitl Or Teouauhquilitl

Etenquilitl

Tlalayoquilitl 10 Xaltomaquilitl

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Ail The Edible Herbs.

Tzrtziquilitl. 1

Eloquilitl 2

Quauheloquilitl

Moçoquilitl 4

Tzayanalquilitl

Achochoquilitl 5

Tetzonquilitl

Iztaqutlitl

Tepicquilitl 6

Eçoquilitl

Uitzquilitl 8

Quauitzquilitl

Chichicaquilitl 10

Tonalchichicaquilitl 11

Coyocuexi 12

Popoyauh 13

Mexixin 14

Xoxocoyoli 15

Xoxocoyolpapatla

Xoxocoyolcuecuepoc 17

Xoxocoyolhuiuila 18

Miccaxoxocoyoli

Quauhxoxocoyoli 19

Quanacaquilitl

Xonacatl 21

Tepexonacatl

Maxten

Papaloquilitl. 22

Ayauhtona 23

A Fruit-producing Herb, Camoxiuitl

Xicama 25

Tolcimaquilitl

Acaxilotl

Atzatzamolli 26

Çacateztli 27

Xaltomatl [or] Xaltotomatl 28

Coyototomatl [or] Coyotomatl 29

Atlitliliatl

Tlalayotli 30

Fifth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Medicinal Herbs And Of Different Herbs.

Iztac Patli 1 Cuicuitlapile [or] Cuitlapile 2

Iztac Çaçalic 3

Centli Ina Or Cintli Ina

Tlatlauhcapatli 4

Tlanoquiloni

Eloxochineloatl

Naui Iuuipil

Tlalcacauatl 5

Tetzmitl 6

Eloquiltic 7

Chichipiltic

Coyotomatl 8

Tlalchichic

Coatli 9

Tzipipatu Or Nanacace

Teçompatli

Nanauaxiuitl

Necutic

Coayielli

Tememetla 10

Tesuchitl

Ylauhtli 11

Xonecuilpatli

Xoxouhcapatli 12

Tzitzicaztli 13 Or Colotzitzicaztli

Tecomaxochitl 14

Picietl 15

Itzietl

Hecapatli 16

Tlapatl 17

Peyote 20

Toloa 21

Çoçoyatic 22

Plpltzauac 23

Iztac Quauitl 24 Or Uauauhtzin

Coanenepilu 26

Ilacatziuhqui

Yellow-leafed Maguey

Chapolxiuitl 28

Totoncaxiuitl 30

Uei Patli

Ixyayaual 31

Eeloquiltic 32

Toçancuitlaxcolu 33

Coztomatl 34

Çacacili 35

Iztac Palancapatli 36

Cototzauhqui Xiuitl

Cococ Xiuitl, Cococ Patli, 37 Or Uitzocuitlapilxiuitl

Chichientic 38

Cococ Xiuitl 39

Xaltomatl 40

Ixnexton

Tecanalxiuitl 41

Xoxocoyoltic 42

Tlaooxiuitl 43

Acocoxiuitl 44

Iceleua

Chilpanton 45

Chichilquiltic 46

Tlatlalayotli 47

Tepeamalacotl 49

Iztaquiitic

Tlalmizquitl. 50

Poçauizpatli

Uauauhtzin

Tlacoxiuiti. 52

Tlalchipili 53

Acaxilotic

Chichilquiltic Quaurn. 54

Uauauhtzin

Iztaquiltic

Quauheloquiltic

Uiuitzquiltic

Memeya 56

Tetzmitic 57

Tzatzayanalquiltic 58

Ichcayo

Tlalyetl 59

Mexiuitl

Uitzocuitlapilxiuitl

Iztac Patll 60

Quachtlacalhuaztli 61

Aauaton 62

Olouuhqui

Iztauhyatl 65

The Quauhyayaual

Mamaxtla

The Xaltomatl

Quapopoltzin 66

Tlalamatl 67

Xoxotlatzin

Tonalxiuitl 68

Tlacoxochitl. 69

Ocopiaztli 70 Or Tlilpotonqui

Topoçan 72

Quetzaluexotl 74

Tlayapaloni Xiuitl.

Uei Patli

Ololiuhqui Or Ueuei Itzontecon 75

Airztolin 76

Coaxoxouhqui

Acocoxiuitl

Tepetomatl 77

Tlatlacotic 78

Texoxocoyol 79

Tlatlanquaye 82

Tonacaxochitl

The Tlachichinoa Xtum. 83

Tlacoxochitl

Quetzalmizquitl 84

Yoalxochitt.

Cozcaquauhxiuitl 85

Tzopelic Xiuitl

Tlatlapaltic

Metl 86

Ciuapatli 87

Nopal 88

The Chía 90

Haacxoyatic 91

Maticeuac

Iztac Patli

Oquichpatli

Tlamacazqui Ipapa 94

Cicimatic 95

Tzompoton

Cuitlapatli

Oquichpatli

Chichic Patli 96

Copal 98

Cocopi 99

Quiauhteocuitlatl

Xiuhtomoltetl

Eztetl, Eztecpatl

Atl Chipin

Quinametu

Ocelot Flesh

Conyayaual

Sweat Bath

Sixth Paragraph, In Which Are Told All The Different Herbs.

Axocopac Or Axocopaconi 1

Quauhxiuhtic 2

Mecaxochitl 3

Ayauhtonan 4

Tlalpoyomatli

Yiauhtli 5

Uitzitzilxochitl 6

Ocoxochitl 7

Iztauhyatl 8

Itztonquauitl

Epacotl 9

Azpan Xiuitl

Tialquequttzal 10

Itzcuinpatli 11

Itztonquauitl

Seventh Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Herbs, Which Are Called Grasses.

Çacayaman, Çacayamanqui

Çacanoualli 1

Tequixquiçacatl

Çacamamaztli

Uauhçacatl

Xruhtecuçacatl

Çacatetectli 4

Eloçacatl

Ocoçacatl

Axalli

Caltoli 6

Itztolw 7

Tolpatlactli 8

Tolmimtlli 9

Petlatolli 10

Nacace Tolin 11

Toliaman 12

Tolnacochtu

Xomali Or Xomall 13

Atetetzon

Acacapacquarn 14

Amamalacotl 15 Or Amalacotl 16

Acaçacatl 17

Atlacotl 18

Achilu 19

Acatl 20

Ocopetlatl 21

Quammamaxtla Çacatl 22

Tetzmolin 23

Quauichpolli Tequequetzal 24

Teyiauhtli

Tlalcapoh 25 Iuintiquilitl Acocoxiuvtl 26 Tlalyetl 27 Tonalxluitl 28

Xoxotla

Tzompachquiuti. Tetzitzilin Or Tetzitzili

Nopalocoxochitl

Memeyal 29

Tzacutli 30

Tlaltzacutli 31

Omdcochttl, 1 Or White Omixochrtl, Or Coloreo Omlkochitl

Tlalizqurxochttl

Tulxochitl 2

Coçauhqui Xóchitl Ox Cocauhqui Riexochitl

Chalchiuhytexochrn

Tzoyac

Tonalxochitl 3

Tlalcacaloxochiti 4

Tone Ixoxochtuh

Tixoxoli

Nofaixacotl

Tolcimatl

Caxtlatlapan 7

Quaztalxochitl

Tlaquili

Acocoxochirl 9

Cempoalxochttl 10

Coçatli

Tecacayactli

Nextamalxochitl 12

Chilpan 13

Cacalacaxochul 14

Ninth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Same Blossoms, Of [their] Somewhat Large Trees.

The Flower Garden

Blossoms Which Gxow On Trees

Yolloxochiquaum. 2

Eloxochttl, Eloxochiquauttl 3

Quauheloxochitl

Cacauaxochm. 4

Izqurxochitl, Izquixochiquauitl 5

Tlapaltzqukochrn. 6

Cuetlaxxochitl 7

Teocurrtaxochrn

Teonacaztli, Uei Nacaztli 8

Uitztecolxochitl

Equimitl 12

Mapilxochitl 13

Macpalxochttl

Tenth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Those Which Are Also Like, Which Are Of The Nature Of Flowering Trees; Those Like Trees Which Also Appear Herb-like.

Teoquauhxochitl

Icçotl 2

Tomazquitl

Cacaloxochitl 3

Xiloxochitl 4

Tecomaxochitl 5

Chichiualxochitl 6

Tonacaxochitl

Acuilloxochitl

Coitloxochrrt

Atlatzompili 9

Tzompilinalli

Toztlatzompilin

Quauizquixochitl

Tlacoizquixochitl:

Tlacoxochitl 10

Uitzitzilxochitl 11

Yiexochitl

Coznc Yiexochitl

Quauhyiexochitl

Chalchiuhxochm

Chalchiuhyiexochitl

Tzoyac Yiexochitl

Yopixochitl

Uacalxochitl 14

Teccizuacalxochitl

Tochnacazuacalxochitl

Tlapaloacauxochitl

Chilqualli Unzpalxochitl Oçomacuitlapilxochitl Nopalxocmtl 15

Tetzilacaxochitl

Ueuexochitl

Omixochitl 16

Tlapalomixochitl

Ttllxochitl

Mecaxochitl

Coatzontecomaxochitl 17

Acaxochitl 18

Quauhacaxochitl Quauhiztexochitl, Quauhiztixochttl

Tzacuxochitl Xiuitl 19

Iuixochitl

Oloxochitl

Mócuepani Xóchitl

Xalacocotli 22

Oceloxochitl 23

Quaztalxochitl

Poyomaxochitl

Tlalpoyomatli

Teotlaquilli

Tlalizquixochitl

Ocoxochitl

Quetzalocoxochitl

Quiyoxochm

Nopalxochitl, Nochxochitl

Cempoalxochitl 25

Macuilxochitl [variety Of] Cempoalxochitl

All The Flowers

Eleventh Paragraph, Which Telleth How The Flowers Are Offered.

Twelfth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Nature Of Trees.

Teopochoti. 1

Maguey: 3 That Which Pertains To Maguey

Tlacametl 4

Temetl

Cueçalmetl

Pattmetl Or Patayametl

Nopal 6

Coznochnopalli Tlatocnopalli Anochnopalli Xoconochnopalli 7

Tecolonochnopalli

Tziuactli

Nequametl 9

Teocomitl 10

Netzoli

Teonochtli

Tememetla

Tetzmitl Or Tetzmeti. 11

Tlachinoltetzmitl 12

Texiotl 13

Atzomiatl Or Atzoyatl 15

The Atzomiatl Patch

Tetzmoli Ox Auatetzmoll 17

Tlaoopopotl Or Tepopotl 18

Tenixiuicotl Or Tetlacotl

Yiamolli 21

Untitled Section: ...

Eighth Chapter , Which Telleth Of All The Precious Stones.

First Paragraph, Which Telleth Of All The Different Precious Stones, And How They May Be Sought.

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Emerald-green Jade, Which Sometimes Looks Like A Stone.

Emerald-green Jade 1

Quetzalchalchiuitl 3

Green Stone 4

Turquoise

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Stones Which Appear Like Turquoise.

Fine Turquoise

Ruby

Pearl

Rock Crystal

Amber

Quetzalitzepyollotli

Tlilayotic Chalchtuitl 5

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Stones; Of How They Appear.

Iztac Chalchiuitl 1

Mixtecatetl

Itztetl, Itztli

Tolteca Itztli

Matlalitztli

Xiuhmatlalitztli 3

Jet

Bloodstone

Fifth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Another Kind Of Stone. It Is A Stone [of Which] Mirrors Are Made, [a Stone] Which Is Converted [into A Mirror].

Mirror Stone

Flint 2

Green Flint 4

Fine Crystal

Tepochtli

Aitztli Or Achalchiuitl 6

Opal 7

Seashell 9

Atzcalli 10

Seashell 12

Colored Seashell

Ayopalli

Quetzalatzcalli, Or Chalchiuhatzcalli, Or Uitzitzilatzcalli

Small Seashell 13

Çolcilin

Chipolin 15

Ninth Chapter , Which Telleth Of All The Metals Which Arc In The Earth.

Gold

Lead

Mica 6

Tin

Copper

Tenth Chapter , Which Telleth Of The Really Fine Stones.

Teoxalli

Emery 1

Temetztlalli

Pulverized Lead

Temetztlalli

A Kind Of Black, Pyrite

Iron Pyrite

Pyrite

Mirror Stone Earth

Pulverized Mirror Stone

Tezcatetlilli

A Kind Of Black Coloring

Flint Sand

Flint Emery

Eleventh Chapter , Which Telleth Of All The Different Colors.

First Paragraph, Which Telleth How All The Colors Are Made.

Cochineal

Tlaquauac Tlapalli

Tortilla-like Cake

Tlapalnextli

Fine Yellow 3

Blue

Light Yellow 6

Light Kid 7

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Colors, So That It Is Seen How Coloring Is Done.

Uitzquauitl 1

Nacazcoloti, 2

Tezuatl 5

Tlaceuilli 6

Light Blue 7

Tecoçauitl 8

Black

Copperas

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of That Of Which Colors [are Made]; That Which Improves Colors.

Alum

Tetlilli Or Tezcatetlilli

Red Ochre 1

Chalk

Limestone

The Xicaltetl 2

Chimaltiçatl 3

Dark Green

Brown

Herb-green

Uitztecolli

Tawny

Twelfth Chapter , In Which Are Mentioned, Are Named, The Different Kinds Of Water And The Different Kinds Of Earth.

First Paragraph, In Which Is Told The Nature Of The Sea And The Rivers.

Atoyatl

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Divisions Into Which Are Divided [waters] Such As Rivers And Seas.

Chicunauatl

Amacozatl

Quetzalatl

Tequanatl

Tollan Atl

Nexatl

Totolatl

Tetzauatl

Pinauizatl

Ameyalli

Apitzactli

Xalatl

Amaitl

Amanalli

Amanalli

[the Spring At] Chapultepec

Atlacomolli

Ayoluaztli

Axoxouilli

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Nature Of The Soils.

Atoctli

Quauhtlalli

Tlalcoztli

Xalatoctli

Tlaçollali

Tlalcoualli

Miccatlali

Xalalli

Teçoquitl

Callalli

Tlalmantli

Tlaluitectli

Tlalauiyac

Metlalli

Atlalli

Tepetlalli

Tetlalli

Tetlalli

Techiyauitl

Tlaltzacutli

Tlalcocomoctlt

Tollalli

Chiauhtlalli

Tlalçolli

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Still Other Characteristics Of Useless Lands.

Nitrous Soil

Salt Land

Nantlalli

Tlaliztalli

Tlaltenextli

Teçontlalli

Axixtlalli

Nextlalilli

Tecpatlalli

Tlapantlalli

Teuhtlalli

Teuhtli

Atiçatl

Mexicatlalli 6

Totonacatlalli

Michoacatlalli

Mixtecatlalli

Anauacatlalli

Chichimecatlalli

Fifth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of A Kind Of Earth Of Which Are Made Ollas And Water Jars.

Contlalli

Comallalli

Clay

Açoquitl 5

Palli

Sixth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of, Which Mentions, The Eminences Of The Land.

Mountain

Popocatepetl

Iztac Tepetl Ok Iztac Ciuatl

Poyauhtecatl

Matlalcueye

Uixachtecatl

Yaualyuhoui

Quetzaltepetl

Another Mountain Which Is Near

Chiquimolin

Another Mountain Which Is Near Motlauhxauhcan

Tonan

Another Mountain Which Is Near Coyoacan

Tonan

Another Mountain Which Is In The District Of Texcoco

Quauhtepetl

Another Mountain Which Is Near Tenayocan

Tenayo:

Another Mountain Which Is Near Tenayocan

Teucalhuiyac

Another Mountain Which Is Near Teucalhuiyacan

Chapultepetl

Another Well-known Mountain Whence Issues The Former Spring Of Mexico

Petlacaltepetl

Another Mountain Which Is Toward San Pedro, Which Is Called Xaloztoc, Near Santa Clara

Acontepetl

Another Mountain Which Is In The Mixteca Province

Coatepetl

Another Mountain Which Is Among The Chichimeca

Chicunauhtecatl

Another Mountain Which Is Near Tolocan; At Its Foot Originates The Tolocan River

Coliuhqui

Another Mountain Which Is Near The Province Of Michoacan

Tepepul

Another Mountain Which Is Near Tepepulco

Spur

Extended Mountain

Sloping Plain

Hillock

Peak

Sharp-pointed Mountain

Hill

Another Mountain Or Hillock

Cliff

Another Mountain; A Cliff

Summit

Summit Of A Mountain

Hillside

Mountain Slope

Narrows

Narrow Passage Between Two Mountains

Upland Vale

Mountain Promontory 6 Or Brow

Wooded Plain

Tree-covered Mountain Plain

Upland Plain

High Plain

Crag

Sharp Pointed Mountain Crag

Cave

Narrow Cave

Valley

Valley With Sloping Plains Or Mountains On Both Sides

Pass

Another Cut On Both Sides

Desert

Trackless Desert, Unpeopled, And Full Of Desert Trees

Desert Waste

Rough, Harsh Land Like That Of Totonacapan

Grassy Plain

Land Of Many High, Cold Regions, Uncultivated And Treeless

Forest Plain

Highlands With Many Trees And Wild Beasts

Gorge

Deep, Rough Gorge

Precipice

Deep, Dangerous Abyss

Seventh Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Kinds Of Rocks Which Are Worked.

Metlatetl

Stones From Which Metates Are Made

Iztac Tetl

Another Kind Of Tenayuca Stone

Iztac Tetl

Another Kind Of Tenayuca Stone

Itztapaltetl

Another Kind Of Slate Stone

Teçontli

Another Kind Of Black Pumice Stone

Tlayeltetl

Another Kind Of Pebble

Tetlayelli

Tetlaquactli

Another Kind Of Pebble

Tenextetl

Another Kind Of Limestone

Tenextetl

Another Kind Of Burned Limestone

Tlaquauac Tetl

Another Kind Of Coarse Black Stone

Cacalotetl

Another Kind Of Stone Which Is Not Worked

Texcatetl

Another Kind Of Stone Which Is Not Worked

Atoyatetl

Another Kind Of Cobble Stone

Atlan Tetl

Another Kind Of Pebble

Tepoxactli

Another Kind Of Stone Which Is Not Worked

Xalnenetl

Another Kind Of Stone Which Is Not Worked

Xaltetl

Another Kind Of Pebble

Xaltetl

Another Kind Of Cobble Stone

Tecoztli

Another Kind Of Good Building Stone

Tepetlatl

Another Kind Of Rough Stone

Tecacayatli:

Another Kind Of Clumsy Stone

Tepitzactli

Another Kind Of Clumsy Stone

Tepopoçoctli

Eighth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Different Kinds Of Roads Of All Sorts.

Road

Main Road

Wide Roads Made Like Paved Highroads, With All Their Characteristics

Trail

Narrow Roads, With All Their Characteristics

Short Cut

Secret Road

Secret Road Or Short Cut

Footpath

Little-used Road, With All Its Characteristics

Oquetzalli

Old Road

Ninth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Various Manners Of Houses, [and] Their Classifications.

Teocalli

Palaces Of The Gods Made Like Massive Towers, Which They Climbed By Means Of Steps Leading From Bottom To Top. On The Summit Of This Tower Was A Building Like A Small Chapel Where There Was The Image Of The Idol To Which It Was Dedicated, Over An Altar Which They Called Momoztli

Teocalli

Tecpancalli

Palaces Where The Lords Lived. They Were City Buildings Where Audiences Were Held And The Lords And Judges Met To Determine Public Lawsuits

Tlatocacalli

House Where The Lord Usually Lived

House Of Nobles

Palaces Of Important Persons

Tlaçocalli

Sumptuous Houses With Many Buildings

Tlapancalli

Flat-roofed House

Calpixcacalli

Strong House To Keep The Lords' Property

Ordinary House

Common Houses

Pochtecacalli

Merchants' Houses

Nelli Calli

Well-made House

Maceualcalli

Houses Of The Commoners

Tecoyocalli

Small House Like A Pigsty

Humble House

Humble House

Colotic Calli

Hut Or Hovel

House Of Our Lord

Secluded Sanctuary

Xacalli

Straw House

Ordinary Hut

Another Kind Of Hut

Tlapeualli

Straw-covered Entry

Xacaltapayolli

Pointed Structure Of Straw

Tlapixcacalli

Hut In Which The Harvest Watchers Or Maize Field Guards Hide

Tecoyoxacalli

Another Kind Of Hut With Peaked Roof

Xacaltetzoyotl

Another Kind Of Hut

Quauhxacalli

Plank House

Xacalmimilli

Another Kind Of Poor House

Quauhxacalli

Another Kind Of Plank, House

Uapalxacalli

Another Kind Of Plank, House

Tlallancalli

Another Kind Of Plank House

Tlallancalli

Underground Hand-dug Cave

Calnepanolli

House With Shading [ Upper Story ]

Calhututlaxtli

Houses Extending One After Another

Calyaualli

Round House Without Corners

Chantli

House In General

Temazcalli

House Where They Bathe

Temazcalli

Underground Cave For Roasting Meat

Tenth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Kinds Of Caves, Whatever Kind They Are.

Cave

Naturally Formed Underground Cave

Cave

Cavern

Tlaloztotl

Cave Formed Underground

Tepetlaoztotl

Cave Between Two [ Rocks Of ] Tufa, Or Perforated In Various Parts

Xaloztotl

Cave From Which Sand Is Removed

Oztoxaxaqualli

Cave Like A Labyrinth; Or Cave Which Has Many Ways Or Many Compartments

Aoztotl

Deep Source Of Water, Like A Cave

Oztotl

The Cave Of Hell, Which They Call By The Names Here Noted

Thirteenth Chapter , Which Telleth Of All The Kinds Of Sustenance.

First Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Maize, Of Whatever Sort.

Cintli Or Centli 1

Ears Of Maize

White Tender Maize Stalk

Yellow Maize Ear

Yellow Ears Of Maize

Reddish Maize Ear Or Ruddy Maize Ear

Bright Reddish Ears Of Make

Tawny Maize Ear Or Tan Maize Ear

Tawny Ears Of Maize

Flower Maize Ear

Colored Maize Ear

Colored Ears Of Maize

Black Maize Or Black Maize Ear

Black Ears Of Maize

The Black Pinto [maize Ear], Or The Fly-specked [maize Ear], Or The Fly Maize Ear

Varicolored Ears Of Maize

Tender Maize Stalk

Maize Stalks Sprouted Green, Small, And Medium-sized

Tender Maize Stalk

Varicolored Young Maize Stalks

Double Maize Ear

Maize Ears Appearing In Pairs

Nubbin

Small Ears Of Maize Which Are Shoots Of [ Large ] Ears

Smut

Ears Of Maize Which Appear Malformed

Maize Fungus

Ears Of Maize Which Appear Malformed

Rottid Dried Maize Ear

Rotten Ear Of Maize

Volunteer Maize

Maize Which Appears Anywhere

Cincozcatl

Ears Of Maize Strung Together

Darnel Grass

False Maize Which Looks Like Maize But Is Not

Ear Of Dried Maize

Maize From Various Provinces, In The Ear And In Various Forms

Second Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Whatever Kind Of Seed Which Is Considered.

Untitled Section: ...

Maize In The Ear Selected For Planting

Third Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Different Beans.

Large Black Bean 1

Large Black Beans Like Broad Beans

Yellow Bean

Brown Or Red Beans

Red Bean

Red Beans

White Bean

White Beans

Paletl

Purple Beans

Aquiletl

Red Beans

Sand Bean

Whitish Beam

Quail Bean

Quail-colored Beans

Mottled Bean

Speckled Beans

Small Bean

Small Beam

Mouse Bean

Mouse Beans; They Are Black And Small

Quaueco

Fourth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of Chla .

Chien Or Chian 1

A Seed Which Is Like Flaxseed, From Which Comes An Oil Like Linseed Oil

Black Chía

A Kind Of Black Chía

Chientzotzol, Chientzotzolli

A Kind Of White, Rather Round Chía, Like Chili Seeds, Or Almost

Ayauhchien

Fifth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of A Kind Of Edible Amaranth. 1

Cocotl

Amaranth Which Is Like Spanish Goosefoot

Flower Amaranth

A Kind Of Red Amaranth

Colored Amaranth

A Kind Of Delicate Red Amaranth

Bird Amaranth

Another Kind Of Amaranth. It Is White — At Least The Seeds

Yacacolli

Another Kind Of Amaranth

Large Amaranth

Another Kind Of Very Red, Very Good Amaranth Also It Is Called The Real Amaranth. It Is Bitter, Very Bitter, Exceedingly Bitter.

Itztonquauitl

Fish Amaranth

Amaranth, Or Its Seeds, Which Are Like Fish Roe

Bird Amaranth

Chicken Amaranth

Mirror-stone Amaranth

Amaranth With Very Black Seeds

Petzicatl

A Plant Whose Seeds The Chickens Eat

Sixth Paragraph, Which Telleth Of The Gourds 1 Presently Edible.

Gourd Or Yecayotli

Native Edible Squashes

Tzilacayotli

Another Kind Of Smooth, Dappled Squash

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: General history of the things of New Spain: Florentine codex: book 11 -- earthly things

Published By: Original publisher Sante Fe, New Mexico: The School of American Research and the University of Utah. 1963 [1975 reprint]. 20, 297 p., 64 plates ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Fray Bernadino de Sahagún ; translated from the Aztec, with notes and illustrations, by Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2017. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Aztecs (NU07)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Eschatology (775); Revelation and divination (787); Dying (763); Sorcery (754); Medical therapy (757); Fauna (136); Flora (137); Animal by-products (237); Ethnozoology (825); Ethnobotany (824); Bodily injuries (752); Theory of disease (753); Diet (262);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The Franciscan missionary Sahagún presaged modern ethnography when, beginning the 1540s, he initiated a project to better comprehend pre-Conquest Aztec ideology and culture, interviewing elderly elites and having the data transcribed and illustrated by multilingual native scholars over a period of some thirty years. This is an English language translation of the original side-by-side Spanish and Nahuatl text. It is a profusely illustrated natural history of the Aztec world, with extensive information on flora and fauna (including dietary and medicinal uses), on various minerals, gemstones, and soils, and on geographic features both natural and manmade. The volume concludes with brief descriptions of agricultural products.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 21

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nu07-021

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English translation from Aztec

Note: Uniform title: Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España. English & Aztec

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1540-1579

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Missionary-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1984

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1500-1579

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) central and southern Mexico

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Indians of Mexico--Antiquities/Aztecs/Natural history--Mexico/Mexico--History--Conquest, 1519-1540/Mexico--Antiquities

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